Chapter 14: Land-use zoning

Oscailtedate_range25 Sam, 2021, 12:00am - 14 Fea, 2022, 4:30pm

14.1    Introduction

This chapter sets out the general land-use and zoning policies and objectives of the plan and provides an explanation of the land-use categories and the zoning objectives which apply. The zoning policies and objectives have been derived from the core strategy (see Chapter 2).

The integration of land-use planning with infrastructure delivery is essential to achieving sustainable development. The NPF requires that the zoning of land for development purposes be coordinated with planned infrastructure and services (see also Chapter 9: Sustainable Environmental Infrastructure). Balancing the requirement to make provision for greater levels of growth and more intense forms of development with the need to safeguard the city’s environment, heritage, infrastructure and communities is a key objective of the plan.

To facilitate these aims, a comprehensive review of the city’s zoned land has been undertaken and a number of changes have been made to the land-use zoning objectives, zoned areas and the nature and extent of appropriate uses. This review built on the comprehensive study of the city’s Z6/Z7 zoned lands that was undertaken in accordance with Objective CEE04 of the 2016 -2022 Development Plan in order to identify lands with the potential to accommodate more intense land uses within the existing built fabric of the city over the short, medium and long term. Some of the key changes in this Development Plan are summarised below:

  • The role of Z3 (Neighbourhood Centres) and Z4 (Key Urban Villages) have been reviewed in the context of recent socio-economic trends and resulting changes in consumer behaviour which have enhanced the importance that such centres play in serving the needs of their local population hubs and in delivering on the vision of Dublin as a 15-minute city. An increased focus on encouraging mixed use development has also been introduced in Z5 City Centre (see also Chapter 7: The City Centre, Urban Villages and Retail).
  • Development principles applying to Z6 (Enterprise and Employment) and Z7 (Employment (Heavy)) lands have been revised to take account of changes in planning context since 2016 and the comprehensive review of low intensity industrial areas of the city. There is an enhanced focus on promoting employment and providing for a wide range of local services on the city’s remaining Z6 zoned lands. The ongoing development and consolidation of Z6 and Z7 lands for these purposes will be encouraged.
  • For the Z8 (Georgian Conservation Areas) zone, an increased focus is placed on the need to facilitate regeneration, cultural uses and appropriate residential development whilst managing the concentration of office uses in these areas (see also Chapter 11: Built Heritage and Archaeology).
  • Z9 (Amenity/Open space lands/Green network) have been reviewed to ensure that adequate provision of a range of amenity uses and ecosystem services are delivered.
  • Changes to the Z10 (Inner Suburban and Inner City Sustainable Mixed Uses) zoning objective include the application of a new requirement that a Masterplan be prepared in respect of the development of Z10 lands in certain locations together with those over 0.5ha in size.
  • Z12 (Institutional Land (Future Development Potential)) have been reviewed, resulting in some change to the zoned areas and an increase in the amount of public open space required as part of the development of these lands.
  • Z14 Strategic Development and Regeneration Areas (SDRAs) have each been reviewed. The majority of the existing SDRAs are carried forward in this Plan. New SDRAs have been designated in areas which have been identified as needing significant regeneration together with a small number of areas that have been identified as needing a strong conservation or archaeological approach to guide their future development (see also Chapter 13: Strategic Development and Regeneration Areas).
  • The strategic importance of the city’s Z15 (Community and Social Infrastructure) landbank (formerly referred to as “institutional lands”) to the future development of Dublin as a 15-minute city has been reviewed and there will be an increased focus on  safeguarding the development of these lands for social and community infrastructure.

14.2    Strategic Approach

The overall zoning strategy is based on the following principles:

  • To ensure that land use zoning across the city spatially facilitates the aims of the core strategy and the objective to develop a compact, connected, low carbon and climatically resilient city.
  • To ensure that land is appropriately zoned in order to accommodate the expected growth needs of Dublin City within the lifetime of the plan and to ensure the protection of community and social infrastructure and critical ecosystems services through the application of appropriate land use zoning designations in order to provide adequate facilities and amenities to meet the growing needs of the city.
  • To provide for balanced and sustainable development by promoting in particular, a mixed-use pattern of development with a move away from more traditional forms of single mono-use zoning.
  • To ensure that the most efficient use is being made of the city’s land in line with the principles of the 15-minute city, and that the re-development of under-utilised and brownfield land is promoted in order to consolidate and add vitality to existing centres.
  • To promote the intensification of development adjacent and close to public transport nodes and corridors in order to minimise trip generation and distribution and to promote sustainable compact urban form.
  • To ensure that the city’s zoned enterprise and employment lands are integrated with key supporting infrastructure to provide for more intensive forms of employment.

14.3    Permissible, Non-Permissible Uses and Unzoned Lands

14.3.1 Permissible and Non-Permissible Uses

A permissible use is one which is generally acceptable in principle in the relevant zone, but which is subject to normal planning considerations, including the policies and objectives outlined in the plan.

An open for consideration use is one which may be permitted where the planning authority is satisfied that the proposed development would be compatible with the overall policies and objectives for the zone, would not have undesirable effects on the permitted uses, and would otherwise be consistent with the proper planning and sustainable development of the area.

There will be a presumption against uses not listed under the permissible or open for consideration categories in zones Z1, Z2, Z6, Z8, Z9, Z11, Z12 and Z15. Other uses will be dealt with in accordance with the overall policies and objectives in this plan.

14.3.2 Unzoned Lands

Certain small areas of land within the city are unzoned or not covered by a specific zoning objective. These lands are illustrated in white on the zoning maps accompanying the plan and usually correspond with the location of the city’s roads, bridges, train lines or other key infrastructure installations. Development proposals in respect of these unzoned lands will be considered in accordance with the policies and objectives of the plan. Regard will also be had to their compatibility with adjacent land uses and zonings.

14.4    Zoning Objectives and Reuse / Redevelopment of Protected Structures

Dublin City Council actively encourages uses that are compatible with the character of protected structures. In certain limited cases, and to ensure the long-term viability of a protected structure, it may be appropriate not to stringently apply city-wide zoning restrictions including site development standards, provided the protected structure is being restored to the highest standard; the special interest, character and setting of the building is protected; and the use and development is consistent with conservation policies and the proper planning and sustainable development of the area.

14.5    Non-Conforming Uses

Throughout the Dublin City Council area there are uses that do not conform to the zoning objective for the area. All such uses, where legally established (the appointed day being 1 October 1964) or where in existence longer than 7 years, shall not be subject to proceedings under the Planning and Development Act 2000 (as amended) in respect of the continuing use. When extensions to or improvements of premises accommodating such uses are proposed, each shall be considered on their merits, and permission may be granted where the proposed development does not adversely affect the amenities of premises in the vicinity and does not prejudice the proper planning and sustainable development of the area.

14.6    Transitional Zone Areas

The land-use zoning objectives and control standards show the boundaries between zones. While the zoning objectives and development management standards indicate the different uses permitted in each zone, it is important to avoid abrupt transitions in scale and land use between zones. In dealing with development proposals in these contiguous transitional zone areas, it is necessary to avoid developments that would be detrimental to the amenities of the more environmentally sensitive zones. For instance, in zones abutting residential areas or abutting residential development within predominately mixed-use zones, particular attention must be paid to the use, scale, density and design of development proposals and to landscaping and screening proposals in order to protect the amenities of residential properties (see also Appendix 3, Chapter 4: Shape and Structure of the City and Chapter 15: Development Standards) for guiding principles regarding criteria such as height, density, urban design.

14.7    Primary Land-Use Zoning Categories

The following sections set out the objectives and requirements of the planning authority for the main categories of land-use. In total, there are 15 land-use zones as follows:

Table 14-1:      Primary Land-Use Zoning Categories

Land-Use Zoning Objectives

Abbreviated Land-Use Description

Z1

Sustainable Residential Neighbourhoods

Z2

Residential Neighbourhoods (Conservation Areas)

Z3

Neighbourhood Centres

Z4

Key Urban Villages/Urban Villages

Z5

City Centre

Z6

Employment/Enterprise

Z7

Employment (Heavy)

Z8

Georgian Conservation Areas

Z9

Amenity/Open Space Lands/Green Network

Z10

Inner Suburban and Inner City Sustainable Mixed-Uses

Z11

Waterways Protection

Z12

Institutional Land (Future Development Potential)

Z14

Strategic Development and Regeneration Areas (SDRAs)

Z15

Community and Social Infrastructure

Z16

Affordable Housing and Employment

The following sections outline each of the above zoning categories in more detail and set out the general role of each zone in land-use terms, and the specific land-use zoning objective in each case.

Note: zoning map key/legend will be updated at a later stage in the plan process.

14.7.1 Sustainable Residential Neighbourhoods – Zone Z1

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z1: To protect, provide and improve residential amenities.

The vision for residential development in the city is one where a wide range of high quality accommodation is available within sustainable communities where residents are within easy reach of open space and amenities as well as facilities such as shops, education, leisure and community services. The objective is to ensure that adequate public transport, in conjunction with enhanced pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, provides such residential communities good access to employment, the city centre and the key urban villages in order to align with the principles of the 15-minute city.

Chapter 5: Quality Housing and Sustainable Communities, which deals with policies and objectives for residential development, making good neighbourhoods and standards respectively, should be consulted to inform any proposed residential development (see also Chapter 15: Development Standards).

In order to achieve a sustainable tenure mix in neighbourhoods, the Build to Rent residential typology will be will be in the open for consideration category.

In both new and established residential areas, there will be a range of uses that have the potential to foster the development of new residential communities. These are uses that benefit from a close relationship with the immediate community and have high standards of amenity, such as childcare facilities, schools, community facilities, personal services, local shops, open space, recreation and amenity uses.

Z1 – Permissible Uses

Assisted living/retirement home, buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, childcare facility, community facility, cultural/recreational building and uses, delicatessen, education, embassy residential, enterprise centre, halting site, home-based economic activity, medical and related consultants, open space, place of public worship, public service installation, residential, shop (local), sports facility, training centre.

Z1 – Open for Consideration Uses

Allotments, beauty/ grooming services, bed and breakfast, betting office, Build to Rent residential, café/tearoom, car park, civic and amenity/recycling centre, garden centre/plant nursery, guesthouse, hostel (tourist), hotel, industry (light), laundromat, live/work units, media-associated uses, mobility hub, off-license, off-licence (part), office, park and ride facility, petrol station, pigeon loft, postal hotel/motel, primary health care centre, public house, residential institution, restaurant, student accommodation, veterinary surgery.

14.7.2 Residential Neighbourhoods (Conservation Areas) – Zone Z2

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z2: To protect and/or improve the amenities of residential conservation areas.

Residential conservation areas have extensive groupings of buildings and associated open spaces with an attractive quality of architectural design and scale. The overall quality of the area in design and layout terms is such that it requires special care in dealing with development proposals which affect structures in such areas, both protected and non-protected. The general objective for such areas is to protect them from unsuitable new developments or works that would have a negative impact on the amenity or architectural quality of the area. Chapters 11: Built Heritage and Archaeology and Chapter 15: Development Standards, detail the policies and objectives for residential conservation areas and standards respectively. Volume 4 of this plan contains the record of protected structures.

The principal land-use encouraged in residential conservation areas is housing but can include a limited range of other uses. In considering other uses, the guiding principle is to enhance the architectural quality of the streetscape and the area, and to protect the residential character of the area.

Z2 – Permissible Uses

Bed and breakfast, buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, childcare facility, embassy residential, guesthouse, home-based economic activity, medical and related consultants, open space, public service installation, residential.

Z2 – Open for Consideration Uses

Allotments, assisted living/retirement home, beauty/ grooming services, Build to Rent residential, café/tearoom, civic and amenity/ recycling centre, community facility, craft centre/ craft shop, creative and artistic enterprises and uses, cultural/recreational building and uses, cultural, delicatessen, education, embassy, embassy (office), enterprise centre, funeral home, hotel, laundromat, office, live-work units, place of public worship, primary health care centre, residential institution, restaurant, shop (local), sports facility, student accommodation, veterinary surgery.

14.7.3 Neighbourhood Centres – Zone Z3

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z3: To provide for and improve neighbourhood facilities.

Neighbourhood Centres provide local facilities such as convenience shops, hairdressers, post office etc. within a residential neighbourhood and range from the traditional parade of shops to larger neighbourhood centres. They may be anchored by a supermarket type development typically of between 1,000 sq. m. and 2,500 sq. m. of net retail floorspace. They can form a focal point for a neighbourhood and provide a range of services to the local population. Neighbourhood centres provide an essential and sustainable amenity for residential areas and it is important that they should be maintained and strengthened, where appropriate. Neighbourhood centres may include an element of housing, particularly at higher densities, and above ground floor level.

Z3 – Permissible Uses

Assisted living, beauty/ grooming services, bed and breakfast, buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, café/tearoom, car park, childcare facility, community facility, craft centre/ craft shop, creative and artistic enterprises and uses, cultural/recreational building and uses, delicatessen, education, enterprise centre, funeral home, garden centre/ plant nursery, guesthouse, home-based economic activity, industry (light), laundromat, live-work units, medical and related consultants, office, off-licence (part), open space, primary health care centre, public service installation, residential, restaurant, shop (local), shop (neighbourhood), sports facility, training centre, veterinary surgery.

Z3 – Open for Consideration Uses

Advertisement and advertising structures, betting office, civic and amenity/recycling centre, cultural, financial institution, embassy residential, garage (motor repair/service), household fuel depot, internet café/call centre, media-associated uses, off-licence, petrol station, place of public worship, postal hotel/motel, public house, take-away.

14.7.4 Key Urban Villages and Urban Villages – Zone Z4

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z4: To provide for and improve mixed-services facilities.

Key Urban Villages and urban villages (formerly district centres) function to serve the needs of the surrounding catchment providing a range of retail, commercial, cultural, social and community functions that are easily accessible by foot, bicycle or public transport; in line with the concept of the 15-minute city.

Key Urban Villages form the top tier of centre outside the city centre. They typically have retail outlets of a greater size selling convenience and comparison goods or provide services of a higher order. The catchment area generally extends spatially to a greater extent than that of urban villages and neighbourhood centres (see Chapter 7: City Centre, Urban Villages and Retail and Appendix 2: Retail Strategy for further detail). Urban villages zoned Z4 are typically smaller in scale and provide a more localised role for the daily shopping needs and local services of a residential community.

A symbol and reference number identifies the designated Key Urban Villages on the Dublin City Development Plan 2022–2028 zoning maps and they are also identified on Map K. These centres have, or will have in the future, the capacity to deliver on a comprehensive range of integrated services along with residential development.

Key Urban Villages:

  • KUV 1     Clongriffin - Belmayne
  • KUV 2     Northside Shopping Centre
  • KUV 3     Ballymun
  • KUV 4     Finglas
  • KUV 5     Ballyfermot
  • KUV 6     Naas Road
  • KUV 7     Rathmines
  • KUV 8     Phibsborough
  • KUV 9     Crumlin Shopping Centre
  • KUV 10   Donaghmede Shopping Centre
  • KUV 11   Omni Shopping Centre
  • KUV 12   Point Village and Poolbeg

General principles with regard to development in Key Urban Villages/urban villages are set out below. Proposals for development within these areas should be in accordance with these principles in addition to complying with the land-use zoning.

  • Mixed Use: Promote an increased density of mixed-use development including residential development with diversity in unit types and tenures capable of establishing long-term integrated communities.
  • Density: Ensure the establishment of higher density development capable of sustaining quality public transport systems and supporting local services and activities. Encourage the development/re-development of under-utilised sites and intensification of underutilised areas such as surface parking. Opportunity should be taken to use the levels above ground level for additional commercial/retail/services or residential use.
  • Transport: Ensure provision is made for quality public transport systems. Provide improved access to these systems and incorporate travel plans, which prioritise the primacy of pedestrian and cyclist movement and address the issue of parking facilities and parking overflow. Ensure that enhanced connectivity and permeability is promoted.
  • Commercial/Retail: Promote the creation of a vibrant retail and commercial core with animated streetscapes. A diversity of uses should be promoted to maintain vitality throughout the day and evening.
  • Community and Social Services: Encourage these centres to become the focal point for the integrated delivery of community and social services.
  • Employment: Encourage the provision of employment uses incorporating office, work hub, live-work units, professional and financial services and the creation of small start-up units.
  • Built Environment: Ensure the creation of high-quality, mixed-use urban districts with a high quality public realm, distinctive spatial identity and coherent urban structure of interconnected streets and child-friendly, accessible public spaces and urban parks. Development should have regard to the existing urban form, scale and character and be consistent with the built heritage of the area.
Z4 – Permissible Uses

Amusement/leisure complex, assisted living/retirement home, bed and breakfast, , buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, café/tearoom, car park, car trading, childcare facility, civic offices, community facility, cultural/recreational building and uses, craft centre/ craft shop, delicatessen, education, embassy office, enterprise centre, financial institution, garden centre/ plant nursery, guesthouse, halting site, home-based economic activity, hostel (tourist), hotel, industry (light), live-work units, media-associated uses, medical and related consultants, mobility hub, motor sales showroom, office, off-licence, off-licence (part), open space, park and ride facility, petrol station, place of public worship, primary health care centre, public house, public service installation, recycling facility, residential, restaurant, science and technology-based industry, shop (district), shop (local), shop (neighbourhood), sports facility, take-away, training centre, veterinary surgery.

Z4 – Open for Consideration Uses

Advertisement and advertising structures, betting office, Build to Rent residential, civic and amenity/recycling centre, conference centre, embassy residential, funeral home, garage (motor repair/service), household fuel depot, internet café/call centre, laundromat, nightclub, office, outdoor poster advertising, postal hotel/motel, shop (factory shop), shop (major comparison), student accommodation, warehousing (retail/non-food)/retail park.

In the case of Z14 lands that are identified as KDCs, all uses identified as permissible uses and open for consideration uses on Z4 lands will be considered.

14.7.5 City Centre – Zone Z5

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z5: To consolidate and facilitate the development of the central area, and to identify, reinforce, strengthen and protect its civic design character and dignity.

The primary purpose of this use zone is to sustain life within the centre of the city through intensive mixed-use development (see also Chapters 6, 7, and 15 for policies, objectives and standards). The strategy is to provide a dynamic mix of uses which interact with each other, help create a sense of community and which sustain the vitality of the inner city both by day and night. As a balance and in recognition of the growing residential communities in the city centre, adequate noise reduction measures must be incorporated into development, especially mixed-use development, and regard should be given to the hours of operation (see also Chapter 15: Development Standards).

Ideally, a mix of uses should occur both vertically through the floors of buildings as well as horizontally along the street frontage. A general mix of uses e.g. retail, commercial, residential will be desirable throughout the area and active, vibrant ground floor uses promoted. On Category 1 retail streets, retail should be the predominant ground floor use – see Appendix 2.

In the interests of promoting a mixed use city, it may not be appropriate to allow mono office use on Z5 zoned lands, particularly on large scale development sites, or to allow an overconcentration of hotel uses in a particular area. Therefore, where significant city centre sites are being redeveloped, an element of residential and other uses as appropriate should be provided to complement the predominant office use in the interests of encouraging sustainable, mixed use development.

Z5 – Permissible Uses

Amusement/leisure complex, beauty/ grooming services, bed and breakfast, buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, café/tearoom, childcare facility, civic offices, community facility, conference centre, craft centre/ craft shop, cultural, creative, artistic, recreational building and uses, cultural/recreational building and uses, delicatessen, education, embassy office, enterprise centre, financial institution, funeral home, guesthouse, home-based economic activity, hostel (tourist), hotel, industry (light), internet café/call centre, live-work units, media-associated uses, medical and related consultants, mobility hub, nightclub, office, off-licence, off-licence (part), open space, place of public worship, primary health care centre, public house, public service installation, recycling facility, residential, restaurant, science and technology-based industry, shop (district), shop (local), shop (neighbourhood), shop (major comparison), sports facility, student accommodation, take-away, training centre, veterinary surgery, warehousing (retail/non-food)/retail park.

Z5 – Open for Consideration Uses

Advertisement and advertising structures, betting office, Build to Rent residential, car park, car trading, civic and amenity/recycling centre, household fuel depot, laundromat, motor sales showroom, outdoor poster advertising, petrol station, postal hotel/motel, transport depot.

14.7.6 Employment/Enterprise – Zone Z6

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z6: To provide for the creation and protection of enterprise and facilitate opportunities for employment creation.

The Development Plan has identified key Strategic Development Areas (see Chapter 6) to support investment, job creation and overall economic growth within the city.

In addition, it is considered that the remaining Z6 lands constitute an important land bank for employment use in the city, which is strategically important to protect. The progressive consolidation and development of these lands will be supported. The primary objective for this zone is to facilitate long-term economic development in the city. It is important that these remaining Z6 zoned lands provide for intensive employment and accommodate a wide range of local services.

The uses in these areas will create dynamic and sustainable employment and include innovation, creativity, research and development, science and technology, social enterprise, creative industry and the development of emerging industries such as green/clean technologies and the marine sector. These uses will be accommodated in primarily office-based industry and business technology parks developed to a high environmental standard and incorporating a range of amenities, including crèche facilities, public open space and enhanced public realm, green networks and leisure facilities.

A range of other uses including local support businesses, are open for consideration on lands zoned Z6 but are seen as subsidiary to their primary use as employment zones. The incorporation of other uses, such as recreation/leisure and retail uses, will be at an appropriate ratio where they are subsidiary to the main employment generating uses and shall not conflict with the primary land-use zoning objective, nor with the vitality and viability of nearby urban villages.

Proposals for development of these lands should create a high quality physical environment; coherent urban structure; provide the opportunity to develop sustainable employment use; and contribute to developing the strategic green network by providing green infrastructure, landscape protection, public open space and sustainable energy solutions.

The policy chapters detailing the policies and objectives for economic development and standards respectively (particularly Chapters 6: City Economy and Enterprise, and Chapter 15: Development Standards) should be consulted to inform any proposed development.

The uses in this zone are likely to generate a considerable amount of traffic by both employees and service traffic. Sites should, therefore, have good vehicular and public transport access. The implementation of travel plans will provide important means of managing accessibility to these sites – see Appendix 5.

Z6 – Permissible Uses

Café/tearoom, car park, childcare facility, civic and amenity/recycling centre, conference centre, cultural/recreational building and uses, cultural, creative and artistic enterprise and uses, delicatessen, embassy office, enterprise centre, household fuel depot, industry (light), internet café/call centre, media associated uses, mobility hub, office, office-based industry, open space, park and ride facility, public service installation, restaurant, science and technology-based industry, shop (local), training centre, wholesale outlet.

Z6 – Open for Consideration Uses

Advertisement and advertising structures, amusement and leisure complex, beauty/ grooming services, betting office, boarding kennel, buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, car trading, community facility, craft centre/ craft shop, crematorium, , financial institution, funeral home, garage (motor repair/service), garden centre/ plant nursery, hotel, laundromat, medical and related consultants, nightclub, off-licence (part), outdoor poster advertising, petrol station, place of public worship, postal hotel/motel, public house, shop (factory shop), shop (neighbourhood), sports facility, veterinary surgery, warehousing (retail/non-food)/retail park, warehousing.

14.7.7 Employment (Heavy) – Zone Z7

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z7: To provide for the protection and creation of industrial uses, and facilitate opportunities for employment creation including Port Related Activities.

The majority of these lands are located in the Port area and at the Diageo/ Guinness complex (see Chapter 4: Shape and Structure of the City, Chapter 6: City Economy and Enterprise, Chapter 9: Sustainable Environmental Infrastructure and Chapter 15: Development Standards). The primary uses in these areas are those that can result in a standard of amenity that would not be acceptable in other areas. Such activities include industry, other than light industry, manufacturing, repairs, open storage, waste material treatment, utility operations and transport operation services.

These areas require a measure of protection from other non-compatible uses as this can result in conflict and limit the expansion or adaption of the primary use in the area. In particular, activities that fall within the scope of the SEVESO III (COMAH) regulations should only be permitted on lands zoned Z7 and the expansion of such facilities may be impacted by the requirement to protect surrounding land-uses. See Appendix 8 – COMAH (Seveso) Establishments, for further guidance.

Z7 – Permissible Uses

Café/tearoom, chemical processing and storage, childcare facility, civic and amenity/recycling centre, cruise shipping and marine services (in port area and ancillary services), data centre, delicatessen, enterprise centre, garage (motor repair/service), general industrial uses, heavy vehicle park, household fuel depot, industry (light), office, open space, outdoor poster advertising, park and ride facility, petrol station, port-related industries and facilities, public service installation, science and technology-based industry, scrap yard, shop (local), storage depot (open), transfer station, transport depot, warehousing.

Z7 – Open for Consideration Uses

Advertisement and advertising structures, amusement/leisure complex, betting office, boarding kennel, buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, car park, car trading, community facility, crematorium, cultural/recreational building and uses, creative and artistic enterprises and uses, shop (factory shop), media-associated uses, public house, restaurant, take-away, training centre.

14.7.8 Georgian Conservation Areas – Zone Z8

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z8: To protect the existing architectural and civic design character, and to allow only for limited expansion consistent with the conservation objective.

Lands zoned Z8 incorporate the main conservation areas in the city, primarily the Georgian Squares and streets. The aim is to protect the architectural character/design and overall setting of such areas whilst facilitating regeneration, cultural uses and encouraging appropriate residential development (such as well-designed mews) in the Georgian areas of the city. Insensitive or inappropriate backland development in Z8 areas will be strongly discouraged.

A range of uses is permitted in such zones, as the aim is to maintain and enhance these areas as active residential streets and squares during the day and at night-time. Offices or the expansion of existing office use may be permitted where they do not impact negatively on the architectural character and setting of the area and do not result in an over-concentration of offices within a Z8 zoned area.

Chapter 11: Built Heritage and Archaeology and Chapter 15: Development Standards, should be consulted to inform any proposed development, as these detail policies/objectives for conservation and heritage and also set out standards.

Z8 – Permissible Uses

Assisted living/retirement home, bed and breakfast, café/tearoom, childcare facility, cultural/recreational building and uses, education, embassy residential, embassy, home-based economic activity, hostel (tourist), hotel, live-work units, medical and related consultants, office, open space, residential, restaurant.

Z8 – Open for Consideration Uses

Beauty/ grooming services, buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, community facility, craft centre/ craft shop, cultural, creative and artistic enterprises and uses, delicatessen, enterprise centre, financial institution, guesthouse, nightclub, place of public worship, public service installation, shop (local), sports facility, student accommodation, veterinary surgery.

14.7.9 Amenity/Open Space Lands/Green Network – Zone Z9

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z9: To preserve, provide and improve recreational amenity, open space and ecosystem services.

Z9 lands are multi-functional and central to healthy place making, providing for amenity open space together with a range of ecosystem services. They include all amenity open space and park lands which can be divided into three broad categories of green infrastructure as follows: public open space; private open space; and, sports facilities.

The provision of public open space is essential to the development of a strategic green infrastructure network. The chapters detailing the policies and objectives for landscape, biodiversity, open space and recreation and standards respectively, should be consulted to inform any proposed development (see Chapter 10: Green Infrastructure and Recreation, and Chapter 15: Development Standards).

The role of Z9 lands in providing for ecosystem services such as improved biodiversity and ecological connectivity, nature-based surface water management, flood attenuation, river corridor restoration and climatic resilience is also increasingly being recognised.

Generally, the only new development allowed in these areas, other than the amenity/recreational uses, are those associated with the open space use. These uses will be considered on the basis that they would not be detrimental to the Z9 zoned lands.

In certain specific and exceptional circumstances, where it has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the planning authority, some limited degree of residential or commercial development may be permitted on Z9 land subject to compliance with the criteria below:

  • Where it is demonstrated that such a development would be essential in order to ensure the long term retention, enhancement and consolidation of a sporting facility on the site.
  • Any such development must be ancillary in scale and demonstrate that the primary sporting land use on the site is not materially eroded, reduced or fragmented.
  • Only a once-off development in respect of the site / lands in the ownership of and /or use by the sporting facility will be considered.
  • In all cases, the applicant shall submit a statement, as part of a legal agreement under the Planning Acts, demonstrating how the sports facility will be retained long term on site.
  • In all cases the applicant shall be the sports club owner/occupier.
Z9 – Permissible Uses

Allotments, cemetery, club house and associated facilities, municipal golf course, open space, public service installation.

Z9 – Open for Consideration Uses

Boarding kennel, café/ tearoom, caravan park/camp site (holiday),car park for recreational purposes, childcare facility, civic and amenity/recycling centre, community facility, club house and associated sports facilities, craft centre/craft shop, crematorium, cultural/recreational building and uses, garden centre/ plant nursery, golf course and clubhouse, place of public worship, restaurant, shop (local), sports facility, water-based recreational activities.

14.7.10         Inner Suburban and Inner City Sustainable Mixed-Uses – Zone Z10

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z10: To consolidate and facilitate the development of inner city and inner suburban sites for mixed uses.

The purpose of this zoning is to promote mixed use in order to deliver sustainable patterns of development in line with the principles of the 15-minute city. The concept of mixed-use will be central to the development or re-development of these sites and mono uses, either all residential or all employment/office use, shall not generally be permitted.

In order to ensure that a mixed use philosophy is adhered to on Z10 zoned lands, the focus will be on delivering a mix of residential and commercial uses and there will be a requirement that a maximum of 70% of a Z10 zoned site can be given to one particular use, with the remaining portion of the site (30% or greater) to be given over to another use or uses (e.g. residential or office/employment).

The primary uses supported in this zone are residential, office and retail with ancillary uses also facilitated where they deliver on the overall zoning objective.

There will be a requirement that for any significant scheme (on Z10 zoned lands greater than 0.5ha in size) seeking to increase densities and/or height, that a masterplan is prepared (see also Appendix 3). The requirement to prepare a masterplan in respect of future development will also specifically apply to Z10 zoned lands at Malahide Road, Harmonstown Road, Goldenbridge Industrial Estate, 110-114 Cork Street, Glenview Industrial Estate and Brickfield House/ Sunshine Estate.

Z10 – Permissible Uses

Amusement/leisure complex, assisted living/retirement home, beauty/ grooming services, bed and breakfast, buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, café/ tearoom, childcare facility, civic offices, civic and amenity/recycling centre, community facility, conference centre, creative and artistic enterprises and uses, craft centre/craft shop, cultural/recreational building and uses, cultural, delicatessen, education, embassy office, embassy residential, enterprise centre, financial institution, guesthouse, halting site, home-based economic activity, hostel (tourist), hotel, internet café/call centre, live-work units, media-associated uses, medical and related consultants, mobility hub, motor sales showroom, off-licence, off-licence (part), office, open space, place of public worship, primary health care centre, public service installation, public house, residential, restaurant, shop (local), shop (neighbourhood), sports facility, training centre, veterinary surgery.

Z10 – Open for Consideration Uses

Advertising structure, betting office, boarding kennel, Build to Rent residential, car park, car trading, funeral home, garage (motor repair/ service), garden centre/ plant nursey, household fuel depot, industry (light), laundromat, nightclub, office-based industry, outdoor poster advertising, petrol station, pigeon loft, postal hotel/motel, science and technology-based industry, student accommodation, take-away, transport depot, warehousing (retail/non-food)/retail park, wholesale outlet.

14.7.11         Waterways Protection – Zone Z11

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z11: To protect and improve canal, coastal and river amenities.

These areas generally include all the waterways and waterbodies in the Dublin City Council area. The purpose of the zoning is to protect the amenity and integrity of these areas including views and prospects into/out of the areas (see Chapter 9, Section 9.5.2 Urban Watercourses and Water Quality and also Chapter 10, Section 10.5.5 – Rivers and Canals). The coast, canals, and rivers have a role in contributing to the development of a strategic green and blue network and also provide for critical flood management and climate adaption infrastructure. The chapters detailing the policies and objectives for landscape, biodiversity, open space/recreation and standards respectively, should be consulted to inform any proposed development (see Chapters 10 and 15). The uses set out below will be considered on the basis that they would not be detrimental to the Z11 zoned lands.

Z11 – Permissible Uses

Open space, water-based recreational activities.

Z11 – Open for Consideration Uses

Café/tea-room, public service installation restaurant.

14.7.12         Institutional Land (Future Development Potential) – Zone Z12

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z12: To ensure existing environmental amenities are protected in the predominantly residential future use of these lands.

These are lands, the majority of which are or which have been in institutional use, which may be developed for other uses in the future. They may include, colleges and residential health care institutions (e.g. hospitals). Significant ancillary facilities such as staff accommodation and dedicated open space and sports/recreational facilities are also often included.

Where lands zoned Z12 are to be developed, a minimum of 25% of the site, will be required to be retained as accessible public open space to safeguard the essential open character and landscape features of the site. Where such lands are redeveloped, the predominant land-use will be residential.

In considering any proposal for development on lands subject to zoning objective Z12, other than development directly related to the existing community and institutional uses, Dublin City Council will require the preparation and submission of a masterplan setting out a clear vision for the future for the development of the entire land holding.

In particular, the masterplan will need to identify the strategy for the provision of the 25% public open space requirement associated with any residential development, to ensure a co-ordinated approach to the creation of new high-quality public open space linked to the green network and/or other lands, where possible. In addition, development shall have regard to the standards in Chapter 15.

On Z12 lands, the minimum 25% public open space shall not be split up into sections/fragmented and shall comprise soft landscape suitable for relaxation and children’s play, unless the incorporation of existing significant landscape features and the particular recreational or nature conservation requirements of the site and area dictate that the 25% minimum public open space shall be apportioned otherwise.

Where there is an existing sports pitch or sports facility on the Z12 lands subject to redevelopment, commensurate recreational/social infrastructure will be required to be provided and retained for community use where appropriate as part of any new development (see also Chapter 10: Green Infrastructure and Recreation, Policy GI49).

Z12 – Permissible Uses

Assisted living/retirement home, bed and breakfast, buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, café/ tearoom, childcare facility, community facility, conference centre, cultural/recreational building and uses, delicatessen, education, embassy residential, enterprise centre, garden centre/ plant nursery, golf course and clubhouse, guesthouse, halting site, home-based economic activity, hostel (tourist), hotel, live-work units, media-associated uses, medical and related consultants, open space, place of public worship, primary health care centre, public service installation, residential, residential institution, restaurant, shop (local), sports facility, training centre.

Z12 – Open for Consideration Uses

Boarding kennel, Build to Rent residential, car park ancillary to main use, civic and amenity/recycling centre, club house and associated facilities, crematorium, financial institution, funeral home, hostel (tourist), industry (light), municipal golf course, nightclub, office, off-licence (part), outdoor poster advertising, public house, science and technology-based industry, shop (neighbourhood), student accommodation.

14.7.13         Strategic Development and Regeneration Areas – Zone Z14

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z14: To seek the social, economic and physical development and/or regeneration of an area with mixed use, of which residential would be the predominant use.

These are areas, where proposals for substantial, comprehensive development or re-development have been, or are in the process of being prepared. A number of the Z14 areas relate to important public housing regeneration areas and others relate to former brownfield lands with capacity for significant redevelopment. A number of sites that are zoned Z14 are also identified as Strategic Development Regeneration Areas. Development principles to guide the development of each these SDRAs are set out in Chapter 13. It should be noted that some of the SDRAs have existing LAPs and SDZ Planning Schemes to guide their development and regeneration.

Z14 areas are capable of accommodating significant mixed-use development, of which residential would be the predominant use; therefore, developments must include proposals for additional physical and social infrastructure/facilities to support same.

Z14 – Permissible Uses

Assisted living/retirement home, beauty/ grooming services, bed and breakfast, buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, café/ tearoom, childcare facility, community facility, conference centre, craft centre/ craft shop, cultural/recreational building and uses, delicatessen, education, embassy office, embassy residential, enterprise centre, financial institution, guesthouse, halting site, home-based economic activity, hotel, industry (light), live-work units, media-associated uses, medical and related consultants, mobility hub, office, off-licence, off-licence (part), open space, park and ride facility, place of public worship, primary health care centre, public house, public service installation, residential, restaurant, science and technology-based industry, shop (local), shop (neighbourhood), sports facility, student accommodation, take-away, training centre, veterinary surgery.

Z14 – Open for Consideration Uses

Advertisement and advertising structures, betting office, Build to Rent residential, car park ancillary to main use, car trading, civic and amenity/recycling centre, cultural, creative and artistic enterprises and uses, funeral home, garage (motor repair/service), garden centre/ plant nursery, hostel (tourist), internet café/call centre, laundromat, nightclub, office-based industry, outdoor poster advertising, petrol station, pigeon lofts, postal hotel/motel, shop (district), shop (factory shop), warehousing (retail/non-food)/retail park, warehousing.

14.7.14         Community and Social Infrastructure – Zone Z15

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z15: To protect and provide for community uses and social infrastructure.

Z15 lands typically comprise large sites, often consisting of long-established complexes of institutional/community buildings and associated open grounds, but also comprise smaller sites usually in more central areas. The existing uses on these lands generally include community related development such as schools, colleges, sports grounds, residential institutions and healthcare institutions, such as hospitals.

Such facilities are considered essential in order to provide adequate community and social infrastructure commensurate with the delivery of compact growth. It is the policy of the council to promote the retention, protection and enhancement of the city’s Z15 lands as they contribute to the creation of vibrant neighbourhoods and a sustainable well-connected city.

The city’s Z15 landbank also accommodates many nationally important institutions such as the RDS and St. James’ Hospital, and the Council are committed to safeguarding their continued operation, consolidation and enhancement.

In recent years, Z15 lands have come under increased pressure for residential development. However, protecting and facilitating the ongoing use of these lands for community and social infrastructure is a key objective of the Council. The Council are committed to strengthening the role of Z15 lands and will actively discourage the piecemeal erosion and fragmentation of such lands.

Limited residential/office development on Z15 lands will only be allowed in highly exceptional circumstances where it can be demonstrated by the institutional landowner that the proposed development is required in order to maintain or enhance the function / operational viability of the primary institution on the lands (see paragraph 14.3.1 above). The following criteria must also be adhered to:

  • Any such residential/office development must demonstrate that it is ancillary in scale to the primary social/community use.
  • The development must not compromise the open character of the site and should have due regard to features of note including mature trees, boundary walls and any other feature/s as considered necessary by the council.
  • Only a once-off development in respect of the site / lands in the ownership of and /or use by the institution will be considered.
  • In all cases, the applicant shall submit a statement, as part of a legal agreement under the Planning Acts, demonstrating how the existing institutional facility will be retained long term on site.
  • In all cases the applicant shall be the institutional owner/occupier.
  • In cases of rationalisation of an existing use in order to facilitate such a residential/office development, the applicant must demonstrate that the future anticipated needs of the existing use, including extensions or additional facilities would not be compromised.

For clarity, the above criteria do not apply to residential institution use (e.g. supported living units) where it is related to the primary use on the Z15 lands.

In instances where all or part of a Z15 landholding is sold or otherwise disposed of for development (e.g. where there has been a cessation of the existing use or the lands or part thereof are sold effectively severing them from the existing primary institutional landholding), the use of the lands will continue on the basis that the existing community and social infrastructure function of the lands remains. The cessation of an existing social/community use on a site or change in land ownership does not extinguish / negate the function of such lands for community and social infrastructure use.

In these circumstances, (i.e. cessation of use on a Z15 site or disposal of all or part of a Z15 site), a variation to the Development Plan will be required to develop such lands for other uses including residential/office purposes. Any such variation would need to be supported by a detailed masterplan which should clearly demonstrate why the land is not viable / suitable for social and community use. The Masterplan should also set out a clear vision for the lands and provide for a minimum of 25% of the overall development lands for open space and/or community and social facilities. This requirement need not apply if the footprint of existing buildings to be retained on the site exceeds 50% of the total site area.

The masterplan must incorporate landscape features that contribute to the open character of the lands and ensure that public use including the provision of sporting and recreational facilities which would be available predominantly for the community are facilitated. The 25% public open space shall not be split up, unless site characteristics dictate otherwise, and shall comprise mainly of soft landscaping suitable for recreational and amenity purposes and should contribute to, and create linkages with, the strategic green network.

Where there is an existing sports pitch or sports facility on the Z15 lands subject to redevelopment, commensurate sporting/recreational infrastructure will be required to be provided and retained for community use where appropriate as part of any new development (see also Chapter 10: Green Infrastructure and Recreation, Policy GI49).

Any proposed development for ‘open for consideration’ uses on part of the Z15 landholding, shall be required to demonstrate to the planning authority how the proposal is in accordance with and assists in securing the aims of the zoning objective; how it provides for significant new community and social infrastructure that will be of benefit to the wider community; and, how such a development would preserve, maintain or enhance the existing social and community function(s) of the lands subject to the development proposal.

Z15 – Permissible Uses

Buildings for the health, safety and welfare of the public, café/ tearoom, cemetery, childcare facility, club house and associated sports facilities, community facility, cultural/recreational building and uses, education, medical and related consultants, open space, place of public worship, public service installation, residential institution (and ancillary residential accommodation for staff), sports facility.

Z15 – Open for Consideration Uses

Allotments, assisted living/retirement home, bed and breakfast, car park ancillary to main use, civic and amenity/recycling centre, conference centre, crematorium, craft centre/ craft shop, delicatessen, funeral home, guesthouse, hostel (tourist), municipal golf course, primary health care centre, restaurant, shop (local), student accommodation (associated with the primary institutional use), training centre, veterinary surgery, (see paragraph 14.3.1 and above paragraphs in relation to residential/office proposals).

14.7.15         Affordable Housing and Employment – Z16

Land-Use Zoning Objective Z16 - To seek the social, economic, and physical development and/or rejuvenation of an area with mixed-use, the primary objective of which would be the delivery of affordable housing and employment.

The new Z16 zoning would require a master plan for all sites rezoned to Z16. The master plan would be developed in full consultation with DCC, the National Transport Authority, Transport Infrastructure Ireland, the Department of Education and Skills, representative Enterprise and Employment bodies, Irish Water, and the local community. The land uses of the new Z16 zoning would be defined as follows: 30% Employment 10% High Quality Recreational Open Space 10% Community and/or Cultural Amenities 10% Private Residential 40% Social and Affordable residential – to be comprised of a mix of social housing, affordable purchase, affordable rental and senior citizen’s housing with affordability to be defined by the Dublin City Council Housing SPC with the approval of the full council.

14.8    Vacant Site Levy

The Urban Regeneration and Housing Act, 2015, (as amended) made provision for a vacant site levy to incentivise the development of vacant and under-utilised sites in urban areas for housing and regeneration purposes. The Act enables Local Authorities to provide a specific objective in their Development Plan for the development and re-use of vacant sites in specific locations within urban areas where it is considered beneficial towards securing the objectives of the Core Strategy. The Act sets out two broad categories of vacant land that the levy may apply to:

  • Lands zoned solely or primarily for residential purposes in accordance with Section 10 (2)(a) of The Act.
  • Lands identified with the objective of development and renewal of areas in need of regeneration in accordance with Section 10(2) (h) of The Act.

For the purposes of the Act and the implementation of provisions relating to the vacant site levy, the following comprise lands which are zoned solely or primarily for residential purposes in accordance with Section 10 (2)(a) of The Act:

  • Z1 Sustainable Residential Neighbourhoods - To protect, provide and improve residential amenities.
  • Z2 Residential Neighbourhoods (Conservation Areas) - To protect and/or improve the amenities of residential conservation areas.
  • Z8 Georgian Conservation Areas - To protect the existing architectural and civic design character, and to allow only for limited expansion consistent with the conservation objective.
  • Z10 Inner Suburban and Inner City Sustainable Mixed-Uses - To consolidate and facilitate the development of inner city and inner suburban sites for mixed uses.
  • Z12 Institutional Land (Future Development Potential) - To ensure existing environmental amenities are protected in the predominantly residential future use of these lands.
  • Residential lands identified in the city’s SDRAs (Z14 zones: To seek the social, economic and physical development and/or regeneration of an area with mixed use, of which residential would be the predominant use) as these lands are the crucial redevelopment and regeneration areas in the city - see also Chapter 13: Strategic Development and Regeneration Areas and also SDZ Planning Schemes and LAPs where relevant.

Section 10(2)(h) of The Act provides that a Development Plan shall include objectives for the development and renewal of areas, that are in need of regeneration, in order to prevent: adverse effects on existing amenities in such areas, in particular, as a result of the ruinous or neglected condition of any land; urban blight and decay; anti-social behaviour, or; a shortage of habitable houses or of land suitable for residential use or a mixture of residential and other uses.

In accordance with Section 10(2)(h) of The Act, and for the purpose of implementation of the Urban Regeneration and Housing Act 2015 (as amended), the following land use zoning objectives are identified as they may contain lands in need of regeneration/renewal:

  • Z3 Neighbourhood Centres - To provide for and improve neighbourhood facilities.
  • Z4 District Centres - To provide for and improve mixed-services facilities.
  • Z5 City Centre - To consolidate and facilitate the development of the central area, and to identify, reinforce, strengthen and protect its civic design character and dignity.
  • Z6 Employment/Enterprise - To provide for the creation and protection of enterprise and facilitate opportunities for employment creation.
  • Z7 Employment (Heavy) - To provide for the protection and creation of industrial uses, and facilitate opportunities for employment creation including Port Related Activities.