Chapter 11: Built heritage and archaeology

Oscailtedate_range25 Sam, 2021, 12:00am - 14 Fea, 2022, 4:30pm

11.1    Introduction

It is recognised that the city’s heritage contributes significantly to the collective memory of its communities and to the richness and diversity of its urban fabric. It is key to the city’s character, identity and authenticity and is a vital social, cultural, and economic asset for the development of the city.

The City’s historic buildings, streetscapes villages, Georgian terraces and squares, Victorian and Edwardian architecture, industrial heritage, institutional landmarks, modernist buildings of the 20th century, urban core and the Medieval City, together with its upstanding monuments and buried archaeology contribute to its local distinctiveness and help create a strong sense of place for citizens and visitors to the city and its neighbourhoods.

The development plan plays a key role in valuing and safeguarding built heritage and archaeology for future generations. The plan guides decision-making through policies and objectives and the implementation of national legislation to conserve, protect and enhance our built heritage and archaeology.

11.2    Achievements

The Council continually strives to protect, enhance and preserve our heritage assets. The Record of Protected Structures (RPS) comprises in excess of 8,400 structures. Since October 2016, there have been 51 additions, 10 amendments/clarifications and 129 deletions from the RPS. Work in this area is constantly in progress with ongoing assessments of structures for addition to the record.

There are presently 24 Architectural Conservation Areas (ACAs) in the city. In the period since the 2016-2022 Dublin City Development Plan was adopted, three additional ACAs have been designated at Haddon Road/Victoria Road, Hollybrook Road and North Great Georges Street.

Between 2016 and 2020, Dublin City Council administered 192 projects under the Built Heritage Investment Scheme and 15 projects under the Historic Structures Fund (previously called Structures at Risk fund) with a combined funding of over €2.2 million.

The Conservation Section promotes awareness of Architectural Conservation and Heritage by presenting a number of conservation lectures as part of the annual ‘Conserving Your Dublin Townhouse’ conservation course offered by the Georgian Society (in association with the Heritage Section of Dublin City Council).

The Dublin City Heritage Plan has been implemented since 2002 in association with the Heritage Council. Under the Plan, new projects are developed in the areas of heritage research, improving heritage management and raising awareness amongst a broad audience. A number of pioneering Heritage Plan projects have been undertaken since 2016, all supported by the Heritage Council. These projects include:

  • 14 Henrietta Street, conservation/adaptive reuse and museum development project, winning awards from the RIAI in 2018 for ‘Best Conservation Project’ and more recently the ‘Silletto’ Prize at the European Museum of the Year 2020 awards.
  • Original social and architectural history research into the processes of modernisation in Dublin during the 20th Century including ‘More than Concrete Blocks, Vol II 1940-1972’ and ‘Dublin Through the Ages: The City Walls.’

Notable achievements in the protection and promotion of our archaeological resource in the city include:

  • Raising awareness of Viking Dublin through international engagement with the Viking urban network and diaspora including the establishment of the Annual ‘Festival of History International Viking’ Seminar with National University of Ireland.
  • Preservation and presentation in situ of medieval and later structures in commercial developments at Aungier Street, Ship Street, Little Green Street and Thomas Street.
  • Implementation of the Dublin City Walls and Defences Conservation Plan, including the installation of a permanent exhibit about the City Wall in the Wood Quay Venue; monitoring and conservation repair works to the City Wall at the Wood Quay Venue.

11.3    Challenges

There are a number of key issues facing the city in terms of its built heritage and archaeology.

  • An over-arching issue is the on-going need to balance the often competing demands of a modern city in terms of consolidation and future growth with the need to protect its intrinsic character. There is a need to ensure that Dublin City is a real and vibrant city where people live and work, not merely a tourist destination. Dublin’s citizens will be encouraged to live in the historic core and the challenge will be to provide sensitive and environmentally sustainable restoration of historic properties, suitable for modern living.
  • It is acknowledged that the ‘greenest building is one…. that is already built[1]’, and the continued, albeit appropriate use of an existing building is necessary for its survival. It is recognised that various historic buildings in the city remain underutilised and vacant. Identifying suitable and viable uses for certain heritage buildings, particularly the upper floors can be difficult. The challenge is to continuously facilitate and sensitively manage the changes required to adapt, reuse, upgrade and protect our rich architectural heritage whilst retaining its authenticity, integrity and special interests.
  • Dublin’s built heritage and archaeology is a distinguishing feature in an increasingly homogenised world. It is a unique asset, which forms part of our cultural identity. There is a need to promote a deeper understanding of our built heritage and archaeology as an authentic, unique and finite resource. Increasing public awareness of the cultural value and social and economic significance of the city’s built heritage will be required. The widening appreciation of our heritage, culture and creativity also presents significant potential for collaboration with community, professional and institutional stakeholders across the various cultural spheres.
  • The direct effects of climate change on heritage may be immediate or cumulative. Of the many potential impacts, those identified as priorities for adaptation planning are flooding, storm damage, coastal erosion, soil movement, changing burial-preservation conditions, pest and mould and maladaptation. In addition, there will be indirect impacts related to societal responses to climate change in terms of both adaptation (e.g. changes of land use) and mitigation (e.g. renovation or upgrading of historic buildings to reduce energy consumption). The challenge will be to conserve Dublin’s heritage for future generations and to develop sustainable policies and plans for climate change adaptation of built and archaeological heritage.

11.4    The Strategic Approach

The National Planning Framework (NPF) (particularly NPO 17 and NPO 60) highlights how our built, cultural and natural heritage has intrinsic value in defining the character of urban and rural areas and adding to their liveability, attractiveness and sense of place. It also emphasises how Ireland’s built heritage assets are a non-renewable resource that merit being nurtured in a manner appropriate to their significance as an aid to understanding the past, contributing to community well-being and quality of life as well as regional economic development.

The Regional Spatial and Economic Strategy (RSES) states that cultural heritage is the fabric of our lives and societies, that it surrounds us in the buildings of our towns and cities, our landscapes, natural sites, monuments and archaeological sites and that it brings communities together and builds shared understandings of the places we live.

The overarching strategic policy approach in both plans supports quality place-making and exemplar urban design. This has a clear synergy with the sense of place and character created by built heritage and archaeology.

In order to ensure the protection and enhancement of the city’s built heritage, the following strategic approach will be pursued:

  • The preservation of the built heritage and archaeology of the city that makes a positive contribution to the character, appearance and quality of local streetscapes and the sustainable development of the city.
  • Enhance, integrate and protect the special physical, social, economic and cultural value of built heritage assets through appropriate and sensitive development to ensure their preservation for existing and future generations.
  • Ensure buildings of architectural and historic interest are protected and include those structures that are considered in the opinion of the Planning Authority to be of special architectural, historical, archaeological, artistic, cultural, scientific, technical or social interest in the Record of Protected Structures.
  • Identify and designate Architectural Conservation Areas and Areas of Special Planning Control.
  • Safeguard zones of archaeological interest.
  • Implement and build on the success of the Dublin City Heritage Plan 2002-2006 along with the outcomes of the current City Heritage Plan Review 2021 and promote the role of heritage in fostering creative places that meet local needs and aspirations.
  • Promote the reuse of redundant and underused heritage buildings and continue to promote active land measures such as the Living City Initiative and the Living-Over-the Shop scheme to encourage the sensitive reuse and adaptation of such buildings.
  • Implement policies that support high quality architecture which respects cultural identity and past traditions of building settlement.
  • Promote the environmental benefits of heritage conservation as a crucial contributor to sustainability as it fulfils the interrelated economic, cultural, social, and environmental principles of sustainable development.
  • Promote best practice in the restoration of the fabric of historic buildings and enhance adaptive capacity, strengthen resilience and reduce the vulnerability of heritage in line with the National Climate Change Sectoral Adaptation Plan for Built and Archaeological Heritage (2020).

11.5    Policies and Objectives

11.5.1 The Record of Protected Structures

The Planning and Development Act, 2000 (as amended) requires each Planning Authority to include in their development plan objectives for the protection of structures, or parts of structures, which are of, special architectural, historical, archaeological, artistic, cultural, scientific, technical or social interest. These buildings and structures are compiled on a register referred to as the Record of Protected Structures (RPS). The RPS for Dublin City is listed in Volume 4 and shown on development plan maps. The record is a mechanism for the statutory protection of such structures. Reference to the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH) and Ministerial Recommendations is made when assessing a building for inclusion on the RPS.

A ‘Protected Structure’[2] is defined as any structure or specified part of a structure, which is included in the RPS. Unless otherwise stated, it includes the interior of the structure, the land lying within the curtilage of the structure, any other structures lying within that curtilage and their interiors and all fixtures and features which form part of the interior or exterior of the above structures. The protection also extends to any features specified as being in the attendant grounds including boundary treatments.

External and Internal Works

All works to protected structures shall be carried out to the highest standards in accordance with the Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines for Planning Authorities (Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, 2011). Additional guidance for proposed works to and the repair of historic structures and features are published by the Department of Housing, Local Government and Heritage Advice Series (available https://www.buildingsofireland.ie/resources), comprising a range of specific advice and guidance for example on: Windows: The Repair of Historic Windows (2007); Iron: The Repair of Wrought and Cast Ironwork (2009); Energy Efficiency in Traditional Buildings (2010); Access: Improving the Accessibility of Historic Buildings and Places (2011) and Paving: The Conservation of Historic Ground Surfaces (2015).

The City Council will manage and control external and internal works that materially affect the architectural character of the structure through the development management process. Planning permission is required for any works, including repairs, which would materially affect the character of the structure or its special interest.

All planning applications relating to Protected Structures shall contain the appropriate level of documentation in accordance with Article 23 (2) of the Planning and Development Regulations, 2001 (as amended) and chapter 6 and appendix B of the ‘Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines for Planning Authorities’ (2011), or any variation thereof including where relevant an Architectural Heritage Impact Assessment.

Curtilage of a Protected Structure

The curtilage[3] of a Protected Structure is often an essential part of the structure’s special interest. In certain circumstances, the curtilage may comprise a clearly defined garden or grounds, which may have been laid out to complement the design or function. However, the curtilage of a structure can also be expansive and be affected by development at some distance away. The Architectural Heritage Impact Assessment submitted with any development proposal should also include an appraisal of the wider context of the site or structure including potential visual impacts on curtilage of a protected structure.

Historic Use

The historic use of the structure is part of its special interest and often the best use for a building will be that for which it was built. However, on occasion the change of use will be the best way to secure the long-term conservation of a structure. Where a change of use is proposed, the building should be capable of being converted into the new use without harmful extensions or modifications, such as the insertion of new openings, staircases, the substantial subdivision of historic floor plans and/or serious loss of historic fabric. Issues such as fire protection, sound proofing, servicing and access will also require careful consideration. In finding the optimum viable use for protected structures, other land-use policies and site development standards may be relaxed to achieve long-term conservation. In some circumstances, short-term uses may be deemed appropriate in order to ensure a building remains weather-tight and in use pending long-term solutions.

Fixtures and Fittings

Historic fixtures and fittings are at risk of damage or theft when buildings are vacant, undergoing building work or on the market. Where development is proposed, the Architectural Heritage Impact Assessment should outline how proposals will manage this risk. If architectural features are damaged or stolen they must be re-instated; this is likely to require a new planning application.

Demolition

Planning permission shall not be granted for the demolition or substantial demolition of a Protected Structure or a proposed Protected Structure except in exceptional circumstances (Section 57(10)(b) of the Planning and Development Act, 2000 (as amended)). It is accepted that in some circumstances, the loss of a protected structure may be the only option and this may be permitted where it will secure substantial public benefit or where there is no other viable option. Any proposal regarding the demolition of a Protected Structure will require the strongest justification provided by a qualified professional with expertise in architectural conservation. The applicant will be required to provide preservation by written and visual record of the structure or any element of the structure that contributes to its special interest, or the architectural salvaging or reinstatement of any such element, before the authorised development takes place.

Buildings-at-Risk

Each owner and occupier of a Protected Structure is required to ensure that the structure/building and any of its feature(s) of special interest are not endangered; under Section 58 of the Planning and Development Act, 2000 (as amended). Any person causing damage to a Protected Structure without lawful authority is guilty of an offence.

Dublin City Council maintains and proactively manages the Buildings-at-Risk Register of Protected Structures that are considered to be endangered or to have the potential to become ‘endangered’ through neglect, decay, damage or harm. The Conservation Section liaises between Planning Enforcement, Derelict Sites and Dangerous Buildings Sections of the City Council in order to prevent endangerment and to address endangerment where it has been identified.

Building Regulations

In carrying out works to protected structures in accordance with the requirements of building regulations, the special interest and character of the building should be considered. Further guidance is provided in the Advice Series publication “Access: Improving the Accessibility of Historic Buildings and Places (2011)”, and “Energy Efficiency in Traditional Buildings” (2010), published by the then Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, and now issued by the Department of Housing, Local Government and Heritage.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

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Record of Protected Structures
  1. To include those structures that are considered to be of special architectural, historical, archaeological, artistic, cultural, scientific, technical or social interest in the Record of Protected Structures, and to remove those structures where protection is no longer warranted.
  2. To maintain and review the RPS whilst having regard to recommendations for additions to the RPS made by the Minister under Section 53 of the Planning and Development Act, 2000 (as amended).

BHA2

Development of Protected Structures

That development will conserve and enhance Protected Structures and their curtilage and will:

  1. Ensure that any development proposals to Protected Structures, their curtilage and setting shall have regard to the ‘Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines for Planning Authorities’ 2011 published by the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht.
  2. Protect Structures included on the RPS from any works that would negatively impact their special character and appearance.
  3. Ensure that works are carried out under supervision of a suitably qualified person with expertise in architectural conservation.
  4. Ensure that any development, modification, alteration, or extension affecting a Protected Structure and/or its setting is sensitively sited and designed, and is appropriate in terms of the proposed scale, mass, height, density, layout and materials.
  5. Ensure that the form and structural integrity of the Protected Structure is retained in any redevelopment and ensure that new development does not adversely impact the curtilage or the special character of the Protected Structure.
  6. Respect the historic fabric and the special interest of the interior, including its plan form, hierarchy of spaces, structure and architectural detail, fixtures and fittings and materials.
  7. Ensure that new and adapted uses are compatible with the architectural character and special interest(s) of the Protected Structure.
  8. Protect and retain important elements of built heritage including historic gardens, stone walls, entrance gates and piers and any other associated curtilage features.
  9. Ensure historic landscapes, gardens and trees (in good condition) associated with Protected Structures are protected from inappropriate development.
  10. Have regard to ecological considerations for example, protection of species such as bats.

BHA3

Loss of Protected Structures

That the City Council will resist the total or substantial loss of Protected Structures in all but exceptional circumstances.

BHA4

Ministerial Recommendations

To have regard to the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH) rating of a structure and any associated Ministerial Recommendation in the assessment of planning applications.

BHA5

Demolition of Regional Rated Building on NIAH

That there is a presumption against the demolition or substantial loss of any building or other structure assigned a ‘Regional’ rating or higher by the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH), unless it is clearly justified in a written conservation assessment that the building has no special interest and is not suitable for addition to the City Council’s Record of Protected Structures (RPS); having regard to the provisions of Section 51, Part IV of the Planning and Development Act, 2000 (as amended) and the Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines for Planning Authorities (2011).

BHA6

Buildings on Historic Maps

That there will be a presumption against the demolition or substantial loss of any building or other structure which appears on historic maps up to and including the Ordnance Survey of Dublin City, 1847. A conservation report shall be submitted with the application and there will be a presumption against the demolition or substantial loss of the building or structure, unless demonstrated in the submitted conservation report this it has little or no special interest or merit having regard to the provisions of the Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines for Planning Authorities (2011).

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:

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Buildings-at-Risk Register

To continue to maintain and proactively manage the Buildings-at-Risk Register of Protected Structures that are considered to be endangered or have the potential to become endangered through neglect, decay, damage and harm.

11.5.2 Architectural Conservation Areas

The Planning and Development Act, 2000 (as amended), provides the legislative basis for the protection of Architectural Conservation Areas (ACAs). Under the Act, an ACA is defined as a place, area, group of structures or townscape that is of special architectural, historical, archaeological, artistic, cultural, scientific, technical, social interest or value, or contributes to the appreciation of Protected Structures.

Architectural Conservation Areas (ACAs) are designated in recognition of their special interest or unique historic and architectural character and important contribution to the heritage of the city. This character is often derived from the cumulative impact of the area’s buildings, their setting, landscape and other locally important features which developed gradually over time. An ACA may consist of groupings of buildings and streetscapes and associated open spaces. Chapter 3 of the Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines for Planning Authorities (2011) provides more detailed guidance in relation to of Architectural Conservation Areas and the assessment of development proposals within them.

The protected status afforded by inclusion in an ACA only applies to the exterior of structures and features of the streetscape.

While the purpose of ACA designation is to protect and enhance the special character of an area, it should not be viewed as a means of preventing new development but rather to help guide and manage change to ensure developments are sympathetic to the special character of the ACA.

The City has 24 designated ACAs which range from historic villages such as Chapelizod, to Georgian streets and squares, such as North Great George’s Street, Fitzwilliam Square and Mountjoy Square and attractive Victorian streetscapes such as Haddon Road and Victoria Road in the suburbs of Clontarf.

Each of the ACAs adopted by the City Council is shown on a map and accompanied by a detailed description of the architectural character and special interest of the area supported by policies and objectives to assist in the future management of development proposals for the area. The ACA document for each ACA is available online: https://www.dublincity.ie/archaeologyconservation&heritage/architecturalconservationareas

There is a presumption against the demolition or substantial loss of a structure that positively contributes to the character of the ACA except in exceptional circumstances where such loss would also contribute to a significant public benefit. In such exceptional circumstances, a proposal for demolition or substantial demolition will be considered having regard to the provisions of the ‘Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines for Planning Authorities’ (2011). Where it is proposed to demolish a structure that contributes to the character of an ACA or to demolish behind a retained façade, the onus is on the applicant to make the case for demolition. Dublin City Council will consider the effect both on the character of the area and any adjacent Protected Structures. When it is proposed to demolish an undistinguished building in an ACA, the proposed replacement should not be of lesser quality or interest than the existing one and should not adversely affect the character of the area.

In considering a proposal for demolition, the applicant must demonstrate that the proposed replacement integrates exemplary principles of sustainable design.

Priority Architectural Conservation Areas

Dublin City currently has 24 Architectural Conservation Areas and further ACAs will be considered for designation over this development plan period. Fifteen ACAs have been identified for prioritisation following careful consideration of the aspects required to identify areas for protection under an ACA, as set out in chapter II, Part IV of the Planning and Development Act, 2000 (as amended) and expanded upon in Chapter 3 of the ‘Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines for Planning Authorities’ (2011). These 15 ACAs and any others considered necessary at any time, will be progressed over the development plan period subject to a prioritisation programme to be agreed as part of the implementation of the development plan and the availability of resources.

Priority ACA projects (in alphabetical order)

  • Aungier Street
  • Brú Chaoimhín & Environs
  • Ceannt Fort
  • Collins Barracks, Arbour Hill & Environs
  • CIE Estate Inchicore
  • Grove Park
  • Harold’s Cross
  • Henrietta Street
  • James’s Street/Thomas Street (west end)
  • Marino
  • Moore Street
  • Parnell Square
  • Rialto Court & Environs
  • Stoneybatter
  • The Tenter’s

Areas of Special Planning Control

An Area of Special Planning Control (ASPC) is all, or part of an Architectural Conservation Area which is considered to be of special importance to the civic life or the architectural, historical, cultural, or social character of a city or town in which it is situated. The legislation relating to ACAs and ASPCs is contained in Chapter II of Part IV of the Planning and Development Act, 2000, as amended.

Two Areas of Special Planning Control have been created for Dublin City Centre, O’ Connell Street and Environs ASPC and Grafton Street and Environs ASPC. The designation of these ASPC’s allows Dublin City Council to specify development objectives for the preservation or enhancement of the area that would further strengthen its designation as an Architectural Conservation Area. Dublin City Council monitors and reviews the schemes over a six year period and may by resolution, amend or revoke the scheme as necessary.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

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Architectural Conservation Areas
  1. To protect the special interest and character of all areas which have been designated as an Architectural Conservation Area (ACA). Development within or affecting an ACA must contribute positively to its character and distinctiveness, and take opportunities to protect and enhance the character and appearance of the area and its setting wherever possible. Development shall not harm buildings, spaces, original street patterns, archaeological sites, historic boundaries or features, which contribute positively to the ACA. Please refer to Appendix 6 for a full list of ACAs in Dublin City.
  2. Ensure that all development proposals within an ACA contribute positively to the character and distinctiveness of the area and have full regard to the guidance set out in the Character Appraisals and Framework for each ACA.
  3. Ensure that any new development or alteration of a building within an ACA or immediately adjoining an ACA is complementary and/or sympathetic to their context, sensitively designed and appropriate in terms of scale, height, mass, density, building lines and materials and that it protects and enhances the ACA. Contemporary design which is in harmony with the area will be encouraged.
  4. Seek the retention of all features that contribute to the character of an ACA including boundary walls, railings, soft landscaping, traditional paving and street furniture.
  5. Promote sensitive hard and soft landscaping works that contribute to the character and quality of the ACA.
  6. Promote best conservation practice and encourage the use of appropriately qualified professional advisors, tradesmen and craftsmen, with recognised conservation expertise, for works to buildings of historic significance within Architectural Conservation Areas.

All trees which contribute to the character and appearance of an Architectural Conservation Area, in the public realm, will be safeguarded, except where the tree is a threat to public safety, prevents universal access or requires removal to protect other specimens from disease.

BHA8

Demolition in an ACA

There is a presumption against the demolition or substantial loss of a structure that positively contributes to the character of the ACA except in exceptional circumstances where such loss would also contribute to a significant public benefit.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:

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Designation of ACAs

To identify and designate further Architectural Conservation Areas (ACAs), within the identified priority areas in accordance with the Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines, (2011).

BHAO3

Areas of Special Planning Control

To prepare schemes for Areas of Special Planning Control, where deemed desirable and appropriate, having regard to the statutory needs of the city.

BHAO4

Bewley’s Oriental Café

Bewley’s Oriental Café at No. 78/79 Grafton Street, is deemed to be a use that contributes significantly to the special and unique character of Grafton Street and, as such, is considered an essential part of the street. It is an objective, in accordance with the Scheme of Special Planning Control for Grafton Street and Environs, to protect the use of the building as a café, which is intrinsic to the special character of the building at basement, ground and first floor. Appropriate ancillary uses may be considered on the upper floors.

 

Figure 11-1:    The Evolution of Dublin

Figure 11.1

Royal College of Physicians Dublin

 

11.5.3 Built Heritage Assets of the City

These include heritage assets such as conservation area land use zonings, mews structures, vernacular buildings, 20th century heritage, industrial heritage and street furniture, which may not be Protected Structures but which contribute significantly to the streetscape and to the character of the city.

Z2 and Z8 Zonings and Red-Hatched Conservation Areas

The Z8 Georgian Conservation Areas, Z2 Residential Conservation Areas and red-lined Conservation Areas are extensive throughout the city. Whilst these areas do not have a statutory basis in the same manner as Protected Structures or ACAs, they are recognised as areas that have conservation merit and importance and warrant protection through zoning and policy application.

Designated Conservation Areas include extensive groupings of buildings, streetscapes and associated open spaces and include (parts of) the medieval/walled city, the Georgian Core, the 19th and 20th century city and the city quays, rivers and canals. The special interest/value of Conservation Areas lies in the historic and architectural interest and the design and scale of these areas. Therefore, all of these areas require special care in terms of development proposals. The City Council will encourage development which enhances the setting and character of Conservation Areas.

As with Architectural Conservation Areas, there is a general presumption against development which would involve the loss of a building of conservation or historic merit within the Conservation Areas or that contributes to the overall setting, character and streetscape of the Conservation Area. Such proposals will require detailed justification from a viability, heritage and sustainability perspective.

Views from Christchurch cathedral Dublin

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

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Conservation Areas

To protect the special interest and character of all Dublin’s Conservation Areas – identified under Z8, Z2 zoning objectives and denoted by red line conservation hatching on the zoning maps. Development within or affecting a Conservation Area must contribute positively to its character and distinctiveness and take opportunities to protect and enhance the character and appearance of the area and its setting, wherever possible.

Enhancement opportunities may include:

  1. Replacement or improvement of any building, feature or element which detracts from the character of the area or its setting.
  2. Re-instatement of missing architectural detail or important features.
  3. Improvement of open spaces and the wider public realm and reinstatement of historic routes and characteristic plot patterns.
  4. Contemporary architecture of exceptional design quality, which is in harmony with the Conservation Area.
  5. The repair and retention of shop and pub fronts of architectural interest.
  6. Retention of buildings and features that contribute to the overall character and integrity of the Conservation Area.

Changes of use will be acceptable where in compliance with the zoning objectives and where they make a positive contribution to the character, function and appearance of the Conservation Areas and its setting. The Council will consider the contribution of existing uses to the special interest of an area when assessing change of use applications and will promote compatible uses which ensure future long-term viability.

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Demolition in a Conservation Area

There is a presumption against the demolition or substantial loss of a structure that positively contributes to the character of a Conservation Area, except in exceptional circumstances where such loss would also contribute to a significant public benefit.

Buildings of Heritage Interest Including Mews and Vernacular Buildings

Many of the older buildings and structures in the city, whilst not included on the Record of Protected Structures or located within an Architectural Conservation Area or Conservation Area, make a positive contribution to the historic built environment of the city. The retention and reuse of these buildings add to the streetscape and sense of place and has a role in the sustainable development of the city. There will be a presumption against demolition of individual structures of vernacular or historic/ social interest that contribute to the character of an area.

It is also recognised that mews buildings in the historic core of the city make a positive contribution to the historic built environment and provide opportunities to increase the residential population of the city. There are significant opportunities, including in the north and south Georgian cores, to improve and intensify residential stock through appropriate mews development. It is noted that in certain parts of the city, many mews sites have been developed for office accommodation and surface car parking. The regeneration and redevelopment of these areas for appropriate infill housing is encouraged. Detailed guidance on mews development is set out in Chapter 15: Development Standards.

Row of Irish Houses in Dublin

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

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Rehabilitation and Reuse of Existing Older Buildings
  1. To retain, where appropriate, and encourage the rehabilitation and suitable adaptive reuse of existing older buildings/structures/features, which make a positive contribution to the character and appearance of the area and streetscape in preference to their demolition and redevelopment.
  2. Encourage the retention and/or reinstatement of original fabric of our historic building stock such as windows, doors, roof coverings, shopfronts (including signage and associated features), pub fronts and other significant features.
  3. Ensure that appropriate materials are used to carry out any repairs to the historic fabric.

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Industrial, Military and Maritime, Canal-side and Rural Heritage

To promote the awareness of Dublin’s industrial, military and maritime, canal-side (including lock-keepers’ dwellings), rail and rural (vernacular) heritage.

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Maritime Heritage and Maritime Villages

To support maritime heritage in built form, to foster initiatives that give expression to the maritime heritage of Dublin City, including trails, features and public realm design and to promote and develop the character and heritage of coastal and maritime villages.

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Mews

To promote the redevelopment and regeneration of mews lanes, including those in the north and south Georgian core, for sensitively designed, appropriately scaled, infill residential development, that restores historic fabric where possible and that removes inappropriate backland car parking areas.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:

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Mews

To prepare a best practice design guide regarding appropriate mews development in the city including for the north and south Georgian cores.

Twentieth Century Buildings and Structures

It is increasingly recognised that there are exemplar buildings from the twentieth century that require recognition and protection. A number of these buildings have already been included on the City Council’s Record of Protected Structures.

Original social and architectural history research was commissioned by the Dublin City Heritage Officer, into the processes of modernisation in Dublin during the 20th Century, in the publications ‘More than Concrete Blocks, Vol. 1, 1900-1940’, ‘More than Concrete Blocks, Vol.2: 1940-1972’.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

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Twentieth Century Buildings and Structures
  1. To encourage the appropriate development of exemplar twentieth century buildings and structures to ensure their character is not compromised.
  2. To encourage the retention and reinstatement of internal and external features that contribute to the character of exemplar twentieth century buildings, such as roofscapes, boundary treatments, fenestration pattern, materials, and other features, fixtures and fittings (including furniture and art work) considered worthy of retention.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:

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Twentieth Century Buildings and Structures and the RPS

To identify and protect exemplar buildings of the twentieth century; to categorise, prioritise, and, where appropriate, add to the Record of Protected Structures (RPS); to produce guidelines and offer advice for protection and appropriate refurbishment of such structures.

BHAO7

Arts and Crafts Housing on Griffith Avenue

To undertake a study of Arts and Crafts Housing on Griffith Avenue, its environs and Glasnevin Village, to examine appropriate conservation mechanisms for the protection of dwellings of particular interest and character.

Industrial Heritage

The sites, structures, complexes, landscapes, machinery, artefacts and plant associated with manufacturing, transportation, communications, construction, public utilities, raw material extraction and production form our industrial heritage. The city’s industrial heritage is preserved both in visible structures and buried remains.

The scope of industrial heritage is vast, comprising a considerable quantity of site types that are highly diversified in terms of their purpose, design and evolution. Dublin’s industrial heritage is closely associated with the development of the city, encompassing sites and structures of engineering heritage related to the evolution of the city’s transport networks and public utilities, as well as its manufacturing heritage. It includes a number of sites of national and international importance such as the Grand and Royal Canals, the Great South Wall, the Pigeon House Power Station, the Guinness Storehouse and the R&H Hall Grain Silo. It also includes sites/structures such as the city’s bridges, quays, railways, telephone exchanges, post boxes and weirs.

Dublin City Council will implement and promote the Dublin Principles adopted jointly by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and The International Committee for the Conservation of Industrial Heritage (TICCIH) on 28 November 2011, as guiding principles to assist in the documentation, protection, conservation and appreciation of industrial heritage as part of the heritage of Dublin and Ireland.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

BHA16

Industrial Heritage

To have regard to the city’s industrial heritage and Dublin City Industrial Heritage Record (DCIHR) in the preparation of Local Area Plans and the assessment of planning applications. To review the DCHIR in accordance with Ministerial recommendations arising from the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage (NIAH) survey of Dublin City.

BHA17

Industrial Heritage of Waterways, Canals and Rivers

To support and promote a strategy for the protection and restoration of the industrial heritage of the city’s waterways, canals and rivers, including retaining features such as walls, weirs and millraces.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:

BHAO8

Industrial Heritage and the RPS

To identify and protect further sites of industrial heritage; to categorise, prioritise and where, appropriate, add to the RPS.

Protection of Historic Ground Surfaces, Street Furniture and Public Realm

Dublin is fortunate to still retain impressive areas of historic street surfaces such as granite kerbing, granite pavement flags and granite and/or diorite setts, mainly but not entirely situated in the city centre. These along with other important historic features in the public realm such as milestones, city ward stones, street furniture, water troughs, post boxes, lampposts and railings make a special contribution to our built heritage. These items are often an integral part of the urban landscape or provide significant historic references which contribute greatly to the character of an area, especially where they complement the architectural features of protected structures, Architectural Conservation Areas and Z2, Z8 and Red-Hatched Conservation Areas (see also Appendix 6).

The City also has a legacy of historic advertising and trader names fixed or painted onto a range of buildings and gables; many of which are iconic and add value to the public realm. It is the intent of the Council that such signage should be retained and protected where possible.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

BHA18

Historic Ground Surfaces, Street Furniture and Public Realm
  1. To protect, conserve and retain in situ historic elements of significance in the public realm including milestones, jostle stones, city ward stones, bollards, coal hole covers, gratings, boot scrapers, cast iron basement lights, street skylights and prisms, water troughs, street furniture, post boxes, lampposts, railings and historic ground surfaces including stone kerbs, pavement flags and setts and to promote conservation best practice and high standards for design, materials and workmanship in public realm improvements within areas of historic character, having regard to the national Advice Series on ‘Paving: The Conservation of Historic Ground Surfaces’ (2015).
  2. To maintain schedules of stone setts, historic kerbing and historic pavers/flags, and associated features in the public realm, to be protected, conserved or reintroduced (Appendix 6 and to update and review these schedules during the period of this development plan.

BHA19

Historic Street Furniture and the RPS

To maintain a schedule of features in the public realm identified for protection in Appendix 6 whilst also having regard to recommendations for additions to the RPS made by the Minister for such structures under Section 53 of the Planning and Development Act, 2000 (as amended).

BHA20

Ghost Heritage Signs

To seek the retention and maintenance of heritage signs and advertising through the city, where appropriate.

11.5.4 Retrofitting, Sustainability Measures and Addressing Climate Change

The enhanced thermal performance requirements (Part L) of the Building Regulations do not apply to buildings included on the Record of Protected Structures. Notwithstanding such exemptions, and in the overall interest of promoting sustainability, the Council recognises the need to improve energy efficiency, provided that the retrofitting of energy efficiency measures does not harm or compromise the special interest of Protected Structures.

Retaining existing buildings and seeking to enhance their energy performance in sensitive ways is in keeping with building conservation, sustainability and progress towards a low carbon society. This is in line with the Built & Archaeological Heritage Climate Change Sectoral Adaptation Plan, prepared under the National Adaptation Framework 5.1.3.2, Objective 2, Development Management and Conservation Approaches for Changing Environments.

The City Council will expect consideration to be given to how environmental performance can be improved in all works which involve change of use, conversion, extensions or other refurbishment, including heritage assets. Improving environmental performance may include measures to reduce carbon emissions, improve resource use efficiency and minimise pollution and waste. For historic structures, simple measures such as draught proofing, energy and water efficient appliances, roof insulation and repair and maintenance work can bring substantial improvements and have minimal other impacts, both visually and on historic fabric and traditional construction.

The Irish Standard publication ISEN 16883:2017: ‘Conservation of Cultural Heritage- Guidelines for Improving the Energy Performance of Historic Building’ 2017 sets out a systematic procedure to assist decision-making in the context of upgrading the energy efficiency of the historic building stock. The use of this standard is not limited to buildings with statutory heritage protection but applies to historic buildings of all types and ages. The standard presents a normative working procedure for selecting measures to improve energy performance, based on investigation, analysis and documentation of the building, including its heritage significance. The procedure assesses the impact of those measures in relation to preserving the character defining elements of the building.

Regard should also be had to the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government’s publication on ‘Energy Efficiency in Traditional Buildings’ (2010) and any future updates and also the 2018 publication “Deep Energy Renovation of Traditional Buildings” by the SEAI, The Heritage Council, Carrig Conservation Ltd. and the ICOMOS Ireland National Scientific Committee on Energy, Sustainability and Climate Change.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

BHA21

Retrofitting Sustainability Measures

To have regard to the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government’s publication on ‘Energy Efficiency in Traditional Buildings’ (2010) and the Irish Standard IS EN 16883:2017 ‘Conservation of Cultural Heritage- Guidelines for Improving the Energy Performance of Historic Buildings’ (2017) and any future updates or advisory documents in assessing proposed works on heritage buildings.

BHA22

Upgrading Environmental Performance

To ensure a sustainable future for historic and other buildings subject to heritage protection, the City Council will encourage and support works to upgrade the environmental performance of the existing building stock that incorporates good standards of design and appearance. Where these works involve historic buildings subject to protection (this includes buildings referenced on the Record of Protected Structures and non-protected structures in an Architectural Conservation Area), the works shall not adversely affect the special interest of the structure and thus a sensitive approach will be required, taking into account:

  • The significance of the structure, and
  • The extent of intervention, including impact on historic fabric, the technical requirements of a traditionally constructed building, visibility, siting and design.

The installation of renewable energy measures and equipment will be acceptable where sited and designed to minimise the visual impact and does not result in any significant loss of historic fabric or otherwise affect the significance of the structure.

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Climate Action

To co-operate with other agencies in the investigation of climate change on the fabric of historic buildings and to enhance adaptive capacity, strengthen resilience and reduce the vulnerability of heritage in line with the National Climate Change Sectoral Adaptation Plan for Built and Archaeological Heritage. (2020)

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:

BHAO9

Community Monuments Fund

To support the implementation of the Community Monuments Fund in order to ensure the monitoring and adaptation of archaeological monuments and mitigate against damage caused by climate change.

Reuse and Refurbishment of Historic Buildings

The inherent sustainability of retention and adaptive reuse, compared with the whole life energy costs and waste impacts that result from demolition and replacement, is acknowledged. Sympathetic maintenance, adaptation and reuse can allow architectural heritage to yield aesthetic, environmental and economic benefits even when the original use may no longer be viable. Conservation can be recognised as a good environmental choice as the reuse of buildings rather than their demolition contributes to sustainability through retaining the embodied energy of buildings and reducing demolition waste. Conservation also supports employment and skills and provides for good quality jobs for artisans.

The South Georgian Townhouse Re-Use Guidance Document commissioned by Dublin City Council (March 2019) sets out a range of possible solutions for the adaptation, densification and conversion of some typical Georgian town houses. Notwithstanding the fact that the study is based on the South Georgian Area, it is intended that the guidance principles are transferrable to other Georgian areas of the city and indeed to some Victorian typologies also. (https://www.dublincity.ie/sites/default/files/2021-03/sgtrg-report-rev-03_2019.pdf)

Also useful to owners of older residences, including historic houses and Protected Structures, the Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland (RIAI), with funding from the Department of Housing, Heritage and Local Government has published a free online guide to conservation and renovation, ‘Old House, New Home’, which offers guidance and advice on repairing and reusing historic buildings. (https://www.riai.ie)

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

BHA24

Reuse and Refurbishment of Historic Buildings

Dublin City Council will positively encourage and facilitate the careful refurbishment of the historic built environment for sustainable and economically viable uses and support the implementation of the National Policy on Architecture as it relates to historic buildings, streetscapes, towns and villages, by ensuring the delivery of high quality architecture and quality place-making and by demonstrating best practice in the care and maintenance of historic properties in public ownership.

Separate Access to the Upper Floors of Buildings

In order to ensure that historic buildings in their entirety are retained in productive use, it is essential to maintain upper floor access. The existence of separate building frontage (or side) access multiplies the re-use options available for buildings. The reinstatement of upper floor access will be sought where this is feasible based upon an assessment of the quality of ground floor (e.g. commercial) unit configuration and frontage. The City Council may also consider joint access arrangements favourably where single unit reinstatement is not feasible and reasonable.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

BHA25

Loss of Upper Floor Access

There will be a presumption against the loss of upper floor access to buildings from street frontages, and the City Council will seek reinstatement of upper floor access points wherever possible from the street.

11.5.5 Archaeological Heritage

Dublin City has a rich archaeological heritage. It has a recorded history of human settlement of over 9,000 years, centred along the line of the River Liffey. While there are few upstanding monuments in the city centre, beneath the surface is a rich and complex record of human activity. The upstanding monuments that survive include the city walls, several castles, churches and graveyards and the quay walls. The city also has deep buried archaeological deposits. Mesolithic fish traps were excavated at Spencer Dock, while an exceptionally well-preserved Viking town was uncovered at Wood Quay. There are over 600 shipwrecks recorded in Dublin Bay, while the industrial heritage of the city c.1750-1950 survives in areas such as St. James’s Gate.

The European Convention on the Protection of Archaeological Heritage (1992) was ratified by Ireland in 1997. The archaeological heritage of the city is protected by the National Monuments Act 1930-2004 and comprises:

  • Recorded sites and features of historical and archaeological importance included in the Record of Monuments and Places.
  • Registered sites and features of historical and archaeological importance included in the Register of Historic Monuments, as established under Section 5 of the National Monuments Act, 1987.
  • National Monuments in State ownership or guardianship.
  • National Monuments, which are the subject of Preservation Orders.
  • All previously unknown archaeology that becomes known (e.g. through ground disturbance, fieldwork or the discovery of sites underwater).

The document ‘Framework and Principles for the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage’ (1999) emphasises the importance of ensuring that full account is taken of archaeological considerations in the wider planning and development process.

Viking House in Dublin
 

Figure 11-2:    Dublin’s Historic Core

Figure 11.2

Figure 11-3:    Location of Dublin City Walls, Remains and Features

Figure 11.3

Record of Monuments and Places

The Record of Monuments and Places (RMP) was established under Section 12 of the National Monuments (Amendment) Act, 1994. Structures, features, objects or sites listed in this Record are known as Recorded Monuments. The RMP is accompanied by a set of maps on which monuments are designated by a relevant reference number and denoted by a circle defining a Zone of Archaeological Potential. The Record of Monuments and Places for Dublin City is listed in Appendix 6 and detailed on Map L. The qualities of archaeological and architectural interest are not mutually exclusive and certain structures may appear on both the Record of Monuments and Places and the Record of Protected Structures.

The European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (Valetta 1992) requires that appropriate consideration is given to archaeological issues at all stages of the planning and development process and this is reflected in national legislation. The Planning and Development Act 2000 (as amended) recognises that proper planning and sustainable development includes objectives for the protection of the archaeological heritage.

Applicants with development proposals proximate to sites listed within the RMP are encouraged to consult with The National Monuments Service at an early stage in order to ascertain any specific requirements that may be required to protect the site in question. Zones of Archaeological Interest in urban areas can provide challenges to development and regeneration as well as providing opportunities for understanding our past. For clarity, the development plan map of Zones of Archaeological Interest is based on the statutory RMP map (1994).

Development proposals for sites in the archaeological zone should be subject to pre-planning discussion and applications accompanied by an archaeological assessment. The planning authority may apply conditions relating to archaeology to individual permissions. These requirements are carried out on behalf of a prospective developer by an archaeologist and funded by the developer. Under the planning system, many minor works do not require planning permission (exempted development). However, if the type of works proposed affect a National Monument or a site included in the RMP, then the owner or occupier undertaking the works must comply with the notification requirements under the National Monuments Acts.

For National Monuments in the ownership or guardianship of the Minister or a local authority or which are subject to a preservation order, the prior written consent of the Minister is required for any interference with the monument. Shipwrecks over 100 years old and archaeological objects found underwater are protected under the National Monuments (Amendment) Acts 1987 and 1994. The Shipwreck Inventory of Ireland includes all known wrecks for the years up to and including 1945.

The policies and objectives below are intended to conserve and raise awareness of the city’s rich archaeological legacy.

Panoramic view of a strong tower of Dublin Castle

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

BHA26

Archaeological Heritage
  1. To protect and preserve Sites and Zones of Archaeological interest which have been identified in the Record of Monuments and Places and the Historic Environment Viewer (www.archaeology.ie).
  2. To protect archaeological material in situ by ensuring that only minimal impact on archaeological layers is allowed, by way of re-use of standing buildings, the construction of light buildings, low impact foundation design, or the omission of basements (except in exceptional circumstances) in the Zones of Archaeological Interest.
  3. To seek the preservation in situ (or where this is not possible or appropriate, as a minimum, preservation by record) of all archaeological monuments included in the Record of Monuments and Places, and of previously unknown sites, features and objects of archaeological interest that become revealed through development activity. In respect of decision making on development proposals affecting sites listed in the Record of Monuments and Places, the Council will have regard to the advice and/or recommendations of the Department of Housing, Heritage and Local Government.
  4. Development proposals within Sites and Zones of Archaeological Interest, of sites over 0.5 hectares size and of sites listed in the Dublin City Industrial Heritage Record, will be subject to consultation with the City Archaeologist and archaeological assessment prior to a planning application being lodged.
  5. To preserve known burial grounds and disused historic graveyards. Where disturbance of ancient or historic human remains is unavoidable, they will be excavated according to best archaeological practice and reburied or permanently curated.
  6. Preserve the character, setting and amenity of upstanding and below ground town wall defences .
  7. Development proposals in marine, lacustrine and riverine environments and areas of reclaimed land shall have regard to the Shipwreck Inventory maintained by the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht and be subject to an appropriate level of archaeological assessment.
  8. To have regard to national policy documents and guidelines relating to archaeology and to best practice guidance published by the Heritage Council, the Institute of Archaeologists of Ireland and Transport Infrastructure Ireland.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:

BHAO10

Conservation Plans

To prepare and implement conservation plans for National Monuments and Recorded Monuments in Dublin City Council ownership.

BHAO11

Dublin City Archaeological Archive

To maintain, develop and promote the Dublin City Archaeological Archive (DCAA) at Pearse Street Library and Archives.

BHAO12

Findings of Licenced Archaeological Activity

To ensure the public dissemination of the findings of licenced archaeological activity in Dublin through the Dublin County Archaeological GIS, publications and public lectures and to promote awareness of, and access to, the city’s archaeological inheritance and foster high quality public archaeology.

BHAO13

Management Plan

To develop a long-term management plan to promote the conservation, management and interpretation of archaeological sites and monuments and to identify areas for strategic research.

BHAO14

Viking Dublin

To promote the awareness of the international significance of Viking Dublin. To support the Viking York Axis Project, the Destination Viking Network and the Dublin Festival of History Viking Seminar; to explore the feasibility of a research excavation in Viking Dublin; to support post-excavation research into the Wood Quay excavations 1962-81; to record and map the survival of water-logged Viking Age and medieval archaeological stratigraphy.

BHAO15

Civic Museum

To develop a strategy for improving public access to the former Civic Museum collection and for curation of other collections of civic interest and importance.

BHAO16

City Wall and City Defences

To continue to preserve, and enhance the surviving section of the City Wall and City Defences - a National Monument, according to the recommendations of the City Walls Conservation Plan (2005) - with reference to the National Policy on Town Defences (2008).

BHAO17

Tourism

Promote tourism in the medieval city drawing on its archaeological heritage to create a strong and authentic sense of place and to support educational and historical tours of sites in the city.

BHAO18

OPW Heritage Sites and Assets

Work proactively with the OPW to promote and improve the visitor experience and interpretation of their heritage sites and assets within Dublin City area.

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Built Heritage and Archaeology

To provide for the protection, preservation and promotion of the built heritage, including architectural heritage and archaeological heritage and support the in situ presentation and interpretation of archaeological finds within new developments.

11.5.6 City Heritage Plan

Dublin City’s heritage is part of our identity and contributes significantly to our wellbeing and our sense of place. It encompasses our built, archaeological, natural and cultural heritage (tangible and intangible). The City Heritage Plan provides strategic support to the City Council and other stakeholders by delivering or contributing to a wide range of initiatives aimed at improving the management, understanding and appreciation of our city’s heritage. The preparation of a City Heritage Plan enables a collaborative approach to identifying projects and programmes to be implemented over a five-year time span.

The City Heritage Plan identifies new ways to research, support and manage our heritage and identify opportunities to engage communities across the city and suburbs with our built environment, archaeological monuments and cultural heritage. It set out priorities to identify, enhance, and increase awareness of Dublin’s heritage in the specific areas of the historic built environment.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

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Dublin City Heritage Plan

To implement the current Dublin City Heritage Plan and to support the preparation and implementation of the Dublin City Heritage Plan 2022-2026.

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Historic Place and Street Names

To preserve historic place and street names and ensure that new street names reflect appropriate local archaeological, historical or cultural associations.

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World Heritage Nomination

To support and pursue a World Heritage nomination for the Historic City of Dublin, in partnership with the Department of Housing, Heritage and Local Government.

BHA30

Moore Street National Monument

To co-operate with and facilitate the state in its presentation of the National Monument at 14-17 Moore Street on a joint venture basis and to support the retention and refurbishment of the cultural quarter associated with 1916 on Moore Street.

BHA31

St. Sepulchre’s Palace Complex

To work with all stakeholders and interested parties to develop a Conservation Plan to safeguard the future of St. Sepulchre’s Palace complex (Kevin Street Garda Station), identify appropriate future use(s) that reflect its historic and architectural importance and unlock the cultural tourism potential of the site in the context of the cathedral quarter and the historic city.

BHA32

Water Related Heritage Strategies

To support the creation and implementation of water-related heritage strategies in partnership with restoration and enhancement of river and canal corridors within the city.

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Dublin Port Heritage Quarter

To support the vision of the Dublin Port Company for the Flour Mill and surrounding heritage assets of the port to deliver a new cultural heritage quarter and maritime museum for the city, that documents Dublin’s rich maritime history and the social history of the Dock workers.

 

[1] Carl Elefante, 2007

[2] Section 2.21, Chapter 2, Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines, 2011.

[3] See Chapter 13 of the Architectural Heritage Protection Guidelines, 2011 for guidance on determining the curtilage of a Protected Structure.