Chapter 8: Sustainable movement and transport

Closed25 Nov, 2021, 00:00 - 14 Feb, 2022, 16:30

8.1      Introduction

Sustainable and efficient movement of people and goods is crucial for the success and vitality of the city. It is important that we transition away from the private car and fossil fuel based mobility to mitigate against the negative impacts of transport and climate change. A considerable shift towards sustainable modes has been achieved over the last 15 years and this must be accelerated over the next decade with an emphasis on increased active travel and public transport use and decarbonisation of transport. A focus on local travel patterns, promotion of active mobility within communities and connectivity by walking and cycling are key themes in this plan.

This plan seeks to promote ease of movement within and around the city as well as playing a key role in safeguarding the environment and adapting to the impacts of climate change. This policy approach promotes the integration of land use and transportation, improved public transport and active travel infrastructure, an increased shift towards sustainable modes of travel and an increased focus on public realm and healthy placemaking, while tackling congestion and reducing transport related CO2 emissions. This plan also looks to the future of mobility in the city including the increasing role of shared mobility schemes, micro mobility options, electric vehicles (EV) and the application of technology in the mobility sector.

Over the lifetime of the plan, Dublin City Council is committed to optimising the interconnection between land use and transport planning, aligning with the principles of the 15-minute city and proactively engaging with the relevant transport providers, agencies and external stakeholders to advance the delivery of key public transport infrastructure projects, providing improved walking and cycling infrastructure, and influencing travel behaviour, which together will assist modal shift and deliver an integrated and sustainable transport network.

8.2      Achievements

The Council has been active in collaborating and progressing the following policies and projects since the adoption of the 2016-2022 Development Plan:

  • The LUAS Green line was extended with the Cross City opening in 2017, the Phoenix Park Tunnel was reopened late 2016 and the Clontarf section of the East Coast Trail, Phase Two of the Royal Canal Cycle Scheme and the South Campshires two-way cycle scheme have been completed.
  • Reduced speed limits have been introduced and expanded to all residential roads. Major road schemes required to facilitate the build out of residential areas are also progressing, such as the new road networks in Belmayne, Ballymun, and Cherry Orchard.
  • The Council launched the public realm masterplan for the city core, The Heart of the City in 2016, committing the city to significant investment in public realm over three development plan periods. Key projects of national significance have been completed or are close to completion such as Kilmainham Plaza in 2016, and Broadstone Gate, the gateway to the Grangegorman TUD campus.
  • The NOW dublinbikes scheme has seen continued expansion with a citywide network of 117 stations and a fleet of 1,600 self-service bikes, half of which are hybrid electric bikes. The scheme celebrated its 10th birthday in September 2019 and over 30 million journeys have been completed to date.
  • The Council adopted bye-laws in 2017 to permit licensing of stationless bike schemes and two operators are licensed with the City Council - Bleeperbikes has over 700 shared bikes and are rolling out a shared cargo bikes scheme and Moby have a fleet of 140 electric bikes available for public hire.
  • The Council adopted in 2018 the Control of On-Street Sustainable Deliveries Eco Hub Bye Laws 2018; this allows for the regulation and implementation of sustainable on street delivery hubs.
  • The North and South Quays bus lanes were implemented in 2017 to prioritise active travel and public transport.
  • Car share schemes have also expanded with Go Car and Toyota Yuko offering over 400 car sharing vehicles around the city.
  • The Council successfully delivered a number of city centre improvements including traffic free Suffolk Street, new parking signage strategy and signs for the city centre.
  • The Council successfully hosted the Global Cycling Summit Velo City in 2019 with over 1,400 people in attendance.
  • The collaborative child- led active travel project Hike It Bike It Like It! Drimnagh won an Energy Globe Award in 2016, was chosen as a EU global best practice project for inclusion on Eltis EU portal and the project and brand were extended citywide in 2017.
  • The Active Travel Communications, Engagement and Promotions Unit has been expanded since early 2020 and has since been rolling out School Streets/Zones initiatives across the city.
  • Dublin City Council, has implemented a 'School Zone' initiative designed to give priority to students at the school gate by freeing up footpaths and reducing vehicle drop-offs, pick-ups and idling. Dublin's first school zone was introduced at Francis Street CBS in August 2020.

8.3      Challenges

Key challenges for the city include the following:

Addressing Climate Change through Sustainable Mobility

Ireland is committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 51% by 2030 and to achieve this, a significant mode shift to active travel and public transport as well as decarbonised/low carbon mobility is required. Despite a positive shift in the travel behaviours of commuters, congestion and transport related CO2 emissions have continued to rise. One of the significant challenges is the need to enable and foster behavioural change to support continued mode shift to more sustainable transport options.

Effective Integration of Land use and Transportation

As a local authority responsible for the effective integration of land use and transportation through the planning system, we must work towards the management of access and mobility as a priority in delivering social, economic and environmental sustainability. One of the key challenges is to recognise the crucial role of transportation in delivering sustainable and liveable communities, including minimising the need to travel and ensuring that development takes place where active travel can successfully be promoted and there is access to high quality public transport networks.

Regional Connectivity and Approach to Mobility

The provision of integrated region wide public transport and cycle networks are crucial to facilitating mode shift across the region.

City Centre and Urban Villages – Access and Functional Needs

The city centre, and to an extent the urban villages, have to cater for a wide range of competing demands with public transport, pedestrians, cyclists, the private car, and the functional and servicing needs of the city economy being all active users of the existing road space. A key challenge is to balance these competing demands whilst facilitating the development and delivery of important public transport infrastructure, cycling infrastructure and ensuring the city remains a vibrant, attractive and accessible area for all. A further challenge includes the ability to retrofit these facilities within existing road and street networks taking into consideration the physical constraints of the built environment in the city centre and urban villages.

Embracing New Forms of Mobility

The Council recognises and welcomes the significant progression in the range of mobility options available to citizens, through the growth in use and availability of shared car and bicycle schemes, the increase in use of private micro-mobility options such as e-scooters and the expansion across all modes of electric powered devices and vehicles. Building on this modal shift is key to sustainable transport whilst recognising the challenges to accommodate and encourage the use of these new forms of mobility.

8.4      The Strategic Approach

Transportation policy in Dublin City is guided by a comprehensive and coordinated set of national and regional policy documents that have emerged over the past decade. The National Planning Framework (NPF) and Regional Spatial and Economic Strategy for the EMRA area (RSES) sets out the overarching objectives to achieve compact growth and sustainable mobility, through the integration of land use and transportation policy together with healthy placemaking. The recognition of the positive contribution of active travel to improving public health, as well as being a sustainable transport option that can achieve a reduction in pollution and greenhouse gas generation, is also supported in the NPF and RSES.

In alignment with national and regional policy and the goal of achieving its compact growth objectives, this plan will continue to present an integrated strategy for transport and mobility that supports and prioritises the use of sustainable modes of transport, promotes active travel and which presents a pro-active and collaborative approach to influencing travel behaviour. The Council will also continue to engage with external agencies including the National Transport Authority (NTA) and Transport Infrastructure Ireland (TII) to assist in the delivery of sustainable transport projects that are provided at a regional or national level.

8.5      Policies and Objectives

8.5.1  Addressing Climate Change through Sustainable Mobility

Dublin City Council acknowledges the importance of transitioning to low carbon mobility solutions to mitigate against climate change and will continue to address this through an integrated set of policies and objectives.

This plan reinforces the role of transport policy in minimising the need to travel, shifting to sustainable modes and supporting and encouraging behavioural change. Active travel modes neither consume fossil fuels nor generate harmful emissions and Dublin City Council will continue to develop the city in a way which facilitates and enables walking and cycling and other sustainable forms of travel such as public transport and shared mobility vehicles as the primary modes of transport. Promoting modal shift to more sustainable modes is a key requirement in adapting to climate action.

The cordon counts of November 2019[1] indicate a significant increase in active travel as well as a reduction in the use of the private car in the area enclosed by the two canals from the period 2006-2019. Currently, 71% of people travel into the city by sustainable modes (walking, cycling and public transport). Dublin City Council, together with the National Transport Authority (NTA) and other transport providers and agencies, will continue to build on this success and seek opportunities to achieve a greater modal shift. The current mode share is 11% for walking and 6% for cycling providing a total mode share for active travel of 17%. It is acknowledged that some of the major transport infrastructure will progress through planning and construction phases but may not be fully operational within the lifetime of the plan. The plan however, seeks to significantly grow the mode share for active travel to 22.5% and public transport to 57% over its lifetime.

Table 8-1:        Current and Target Mode Share

Current Mode Share (2019)

Target Mode Share 2028

Walking 11%

Walking 13%

Cycling 6%

Cycling/Micro Mobility 13%

Public Transport (bus, rail, LUAS) 54%

Public Transport (bus, rail, LUAS) 57%*

Private Vehicles (car, taxi, goods, motorcycles) 29%

Private Vehicles (car, taxi, goods, motorcycles) 17%

*The modest increase in public transport mode share anticipates the construction of major public transport infrastructure that is proposed to occur over the lifetime of the plan. The impact of public transport infrastructure projects on mode share is more likely to come into fruition during the lifespan of the following plan.

It is recognised that an effective response to climate change requires an integrated approach across all policy areas in the plan. The decarbonisation of vehicles is required and a regional strategy for electric vehicle (EV) charging will be implemented over the lifetime of the plan. This strategy will address appropriate locations and formats for EV charging and maintenance and management regimes. Innovative ways of providing such additional infrastructure are currently being considered and tested in the Dublin Region, and it is recognised that these solutions could have an important role to play in future.

It is also recognised that the operational fleet of service vehicles, both public and commercial, plays a vital role in the decarbonisation of vehicles. The use of hybrid and electric vehicles across all sectors including public transport, can serve to reduce the CO2 emissions generated from these transport modes.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


Modal Shift and Compact Growth

To continue to promote modal shift from private car use towards increased use of more sustainable forms of transport such as active mobility and public transport, and to work with the National Transport Authority (NTA), Transport Infrastructure Ireland (TII) and other transport agencies in progressing an integrated set of transport objectives to achieve compact growth.


Decarbonising Transport

To support the decarbonising of motorised transport and facilitate the rollout of alternative low emission fuel infrastructure, prioritising electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure.


It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:


Transition to More Sustainable Travel Modes

To achieve and monitor a transition to more sustainable travel modes including walking, cycling and public transport over the lifetime of the development plan, in line with the city mode share targets of 26% walking/cycling/micro mobility; 57% public transport (bus/rail/LUAS); and 17% private (car/van/HGV/motorcycle).

8.5.2  Effective Integration of Land use and Transportation

The key role in delivering social, economic and environmental sustainability is the effective integration of land use and transportation. The NPF and RSES also recognise its importance and focus on the development of an integrated, efficient and sustainable mobility system in the long term interests of society, the economy and the environment. The NTA’s Transport Strategy for the Greater Dublin Area (GDA) 2016-2035 and forthcoming review, also builds on this approach and sets out the guiding policy and objectives for the efficient, effective and sustainable movement of people and goods.

This plan encourages higher-density development along public transport routes (i.e. Transit Oriented Development), a method of planning development around a main transport link. Adopting this approach recognises the opportunities presented by Metrolink, LUAS and DART+ proposals, as well as the existing and planned bus improvements under Bus Connects. Together with focusing mixed use developments around public transport nodes, a key element in successfully achieving this integration is through the provision of high quality pedestrian and cycling infrastructure and permeability links to encourage the use of sustainable modes to access the public transport station.

Person walking along Liffey boardwalk between Dublin Bike stations

Figure 8-1:      City Centre Integrated Transport


Parking policies seek to limit car parking at destination while the need to travel generally is minimised by designing mixed used layouts where people can live close to where they work and have access to a range of community facilities and services in short walking and cycling times or accessed by high quality public transport links i.e. the 15-minute city.

Dublin City Council also supports the development of mobility hubs, the aim of which is to encourage varied and sustainable types of transport in areas that are close to existing public transport links with high concentrations of employment, housing, shopping, amenities and recreation. A mobility hub is a place of connectivity where different travel options such as walking, cycling, public transport and shared mobility services, are located together to facilitate ease of access and transition between transport modes. Together with quality public realm and place making, mobility hubs can help create vibrant and liveable places to support the transportation experience.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


Integrated Transport Network

To support and promote the sustainability principles set out in National and Regional documents to ensure the creation of an integrated transport network that services the needs of communities and businesses of Dublin City and the region.


Integration of Public Transport Services and Development

To support and encourage intensification and mixed-use development along public transport corridors and to ensure the integration of high quality permeability links and public realm in tandem with the delivery of public transport services, to create attractive, liveable and high quality urban places.


Mobility Hubs

To support the development of mobility hubs at key public transport locations and local mobility hubs in tandem with new developments to include shared car and micro mobility initiatives, creating a vibrant, accessible and liveable place to support the transportation experience.

Mobility Management and Travel Planning

An important part of the ensuring the effective integration of land use and planning and achieving the objectives of the 15-minute city, is through mobility management which seeks to encourage as much travel as possible by sustainable means. At a strategic level, this involves locating development in the most accessible locations while at a more detailed level, it means designing new areas and developments in a way that minimises the need to travel from the outset by providing connected and permeable walking and cycling networks, improved connectivity to public transport and easy access to facilities and amenities.

Travel plans (workplace, school, residential etc.) are an important tool in the context of mobility management. They include an integrated set of measures to encourage sustainable travel modes and reduce car borne traffic within a development. Travel planning will continue to be a requirement in the development management process to support development that has the potential to generate significant traffic movements and to encourage active travel modes in all residential, workplaces and schools.

Dublin City Council requires mobility strategies for new developments that combine proactive mobility management and travel planning in the development of bespoke mobility plans for different areas within the city. The provision of local mobility hubs that include shared car and micro mobility schemes are promoted within mobility strategies as well as improvements to local environments.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


Mobility Management and Travel Planning

To promote best practice mobility management and travel planning through the requirement for proactive mobility strategies for new developments focussed on promoting and providing for active travel and public transport use while managing vehicular traffic and servicing activity.


Travel Plans for New and Existing Developments

To require the preparation and submission of travel plans for new and existing developments as part of the planning application process including residential, school, workplace etc.

8.5.3  Public Realm, Place Making and Healthy Streets

Quality public realm and healthy place making are core principles of the NPF and the RSES, improving quality of life through the creation of healthy and attractive places for all. Dublin City Council recognises the importance of reducing car dominance and that encouraging walking, cycling and use of public transport as a sustainable travel mode requires improving the attractiveness of the environment and public realm within our City and urban villages.

Dublin City Council’s Public Realm Strategy (‘Your City- Your Space’) sets out guidance for the design, maintenance and management of the public realm. Building on this strategy, further plans for the Grafton Street Quarter and the city core have also been developed, as set out in the 2016 Public Realm Masterplan for the City Core, The Heart of the City, and Dublin City Council is committed to supporting the public realm enhancements contained within these plans and future plans and projects.

Providing new, high quality public realm together with reimagining and reinventing existing spaces are all key factors in the successful integration of public transport and active travel proposals and creating a sense of place for communities. Dublin City Council recognises and welcomes the opportunities for developing public realm around the city and in the urban villages where new public transport proposals are being developed such as Metrolink, Bus Connects and the LUAS expansion and DART+ project.

Building on the 15-minute city concept and the Healthy Streets approach which focus on providing access to services and amenities within a short walking or cycling distance, Dublin City Council will also seek improvements to public realm in new development areas and work with developers to provide safe, attractive and vibrant areas accessible for all. The City Council will also work with the NTA, TII and other agencies to ensure that public transport projects routed through urban villages will deliver high quality public realm and pedestrian space as an integral part of the projects. Further policies and objectives regarding the public realm are also set out in Chapter 4.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


Public Realm Enhancements

To support public realm enhancements that contribute to place making and liveability and which prioritise pedestrians in accordance with Dublin City Council’s Public Realm Strategy (‘Your City – Your Space’), the Public Realm Masterplan for the City Core (The Heart of the City), the Grafton Street Quarter Public Realm Plan and forthcoming public realm plans such as those for the Parnell Square Cultural Quarter Development and the City Markets Area.


Public Realm in New Developments

To encourage and facilitate the delivery of high quality public realm in tandem with new developments throughout the city in collaboration with private developers through the Development Management process.

8.5.4  Accessibility for All

Dublin City Council recognises the need for equality of access for everybody to all aspects of the built and external environment as an essential prerequisite for equal opportunities and the development of an inclusive society. Improved footpaths and pedestrian networks play a crucial role in facilitating access for all. Dublin City Council will continue to support agencies addressing the pertinent transport and access needs of people with mobility impairment and/or disabilities, including the elderly and people with children, to create a City environment that is safe and accessible to all and in accordance with best accessibility practice.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


Pedestrian Network

To protect, improve and expand on the pedestrian network inclusive of facilities for people with mobility impairment and/or disabilities, including the elderly and people with children, linking key public buildings, shopping streets, public transport points and tourist and recreational attractions.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:


Improving the Pedestrian Network

To improve the pedestrian network and prioritise the introduction of tactile paving, ramps and kerb dishing at appropriate locations, including pedestrian crossings, taxi ranks, bus stops and rail platforms in order to optimise accessibility for all users.


Public On-Street Accessible Parking Bays

To provide public on-street accessible parking bays where appropriate.


Taxi Ranks

To ensure the City is provided with adequate and accessible taxi ranks and facilities and to engage with the National Transport Authority and representatives of the taxi industry regarding provision of same.

8.5.5  City Centre and Urban Villages- Access and Functional Needs

The city centre is the very heart of the national capital, a daily destination for over half a million people working, visiting, studying, shopping and enjoying all the culture and amenity the city has to offer. Dublin City Council is committed to enhancing the liveability of the city and to providing more space for people to enjoy city life. In order to accommodate future growth over the lifetime of the plan, reallocation of space to pedestrians will be required, and long term public realm and placemaking plans for the city core will need to be expedited.

Dublin City Council commits to a review of the 2016 City Centre Transport Study, having regard to the major proposed public transport projects which will have a transformative impact on the city centre. Priority for pedestrians and pedestrian space as well as the provision of high quality public realm will underpin the future vision for the city centre. The challenges presented by the construction of new public transport infrastructure will be approached as an opportunity to work with residents, employees and other stakeholders to support changes in travel behaviour during the plan period.

Urban Villages

The importance of the urban villages as the heart and focus for communities is recognised and supported by this plan. Their role in contributing to the 15-minute city is crucial through their ability to provide a hub of services, facilities and amenities for the population within a 15 minute walking catchment. Dublin City Council is committed to improving connectivity to the urban villages, alongside improvements to the public realm and encouraging more active travel within these communities.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


Pedestrians and Public Realm

To enhance the attractiveness and liveability of the city through the continued reallocation of space to pedestrians and public realm to provide a safe and comfortable street environment for pedestrians of all ages and abilities.


Urban Villages and the 15-Minute City

To support the role of the urban villages in contributing to the 15-minute city through improvement of connectivity in particular for active travel and public realm enhancement.


City Centre Road Space

To manage city centre road-space to best address the needs of pedestrians and cyclists, public transport, shared modes and the private car, in particular, where there are intersections between DART, LUAS and Metrolink and with the existing and proposed bus network.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:


Review of the City Centre Transport Study

To review the City Centre Transport Study 2016 in the lifetime of the plan, setting out a clear strategy to prioritise active travel modes and public transport use, whilst ensuring the integration of high quality public realm.


As the city intensifies, more pressure is being put on streets to accommodate the activity generated by existing and new developments. The kerbside space traditionally available for this is being continually reduced in favour of transport infrastructure and public realm improvements. As such, there is very limited capacity on street to meet the servicing requirements of developments.

This plan will proactively address the challenges facing the city centre from an operational point of view. The City Council commits to the development of a servicing strategy for the city which will consider sustainable ‘last mile’ delivery (optimising the last leg of the delivery to reduce emissions and congestion), the provision of delivery hubs and the application of smart technology to make kerbside activity more efficient. Dublin City Council will also actively work with private developers through the Development Management process to ensure effective service management strategies are developed to minimise the impact on the surrounding road network (see Appendix 5 for further detail).

‘Last mile’ delivery is an important consideration for both the city centre and the urban villages as it could potentially remove heavy servicing activity from the kerbside. The last-mile delivery is recognised as an important logistical approach to the delivery of goods and services to customers in the city. Through the support and development of walking- and cycling-based modes of delivery operating from micro distribution hubs, this enables a reduced or zero emissions solution for how goods are delivered in busy city locations. It is also recognised that large multi-storey car parks can facilitate the integration of these hubs and accommodate a wide range of sustainable modes to replace the private vehicle.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


‘Last-Mile’ Delivery

To seek to achieve a significant reduction in the number of motorised delivery vehicles in the City through supporting and promoting the use of the ‘last-mile’ delivery through the development of micro hubs and distribution centres.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:


Servicing/Logistics Strategy

To prepare a Servicing/Logistics Strategy for the city in collaboration with relevant stakeholders to ensure the continued viability of the city and urban villages.

8.5.6  Sustainable Modes

Active Travel – Walking and Cycling

To make active travel an attractive alternative choice to car-based transport, and to facilitate the 15-minute city concept of creating active, healthy communities with ease of access to amenities and services, certain critical factors are required. These include the provision of a permeable pedestrian and cycling network that allows for multiple direct connections between key destinations such as residential areas, shops, schools, employment centres and public transport links, as well as an attractive and safe pedestrian and cycling environment where high quality facilities are provided supporting their use by all ages and abilities. Dublin City Council is preparing a walking action plan which will inform future investment. A significant allocation of Government funding was announced in 2021 for investment in walking and cycling and Dublin City Council is committed to supporting the roll out of the relevant infrastructure within the lifetime of this plan.


Figure 8-2:      Strategic Pedestrian and Related Connections

An important measure of successful mobility for any City is how well it provides for pedestrians, in terms of physical infrastructure, legibility, accessibility and quality of experience. The reallocation of space to pedestrians and their prioritisation in the movement network are key priorities of the plan. Improvements to the pedestrian environment will be proactively sought through the Development Management process.

Cycling has the potential to transform the city’s quality of life in terms of health and environment. It is considered an efficient, fast and relatively inexpensive form of mobility. This plan builds on the success of cycling in the city to date, and aims to further increase the mode share of cycling and to support a cycling culture in the city. The positive impact of measures to promote cycling in the city are recognised, including shared bike schemes, the expanded cycle network, cycling promotion campaigns, speed calming measures and increased publicly accessible cycle parking. The continued expansion of bike share schemes will also encourage cycling.

The provision of convenient, secure and central cycle parking facilities is important in encouraging increased cycling. Consideration needs to be given to the provision of strategic high-quality off-street cycle parks, particularly in the city centre and close to key destinations. Parking for cargo and adapted bikes is also required. The City Council will continue to work with the NTA’s ‘Cycle Network Plan for the Greater Dublin Area’ and its forthcoming review in order to develop a more comprehensive cycle network.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


Walking, Cycling and Active Travel

To prioritise the development of walking and cycling facilities and encourage a shift to active travel for people of all ages and abilities, in line with the city’s mode share targets.


Active Travel Initiatives

To promote and help develop community-based coordinated initiatives at local level that encourage active travel and modal switch to sustainable transport modes, and to target underrepresented cohorts/groups in such initiatives and specifically to target a significant increase in the number of children cycling to primary school.


The Pedestrian Environment

To continue to maintain and improve the pedestrian environment and promote the development of a network of pedestrian routes which link residential areas with recreational, educational and employment destinations to create a pedestrian environment that is safe, accessible to all in accordance with best accessibility practice.


Integration of Active Travel with Public Transport

To work with the relevant transport providers, agencies and stakeholders to facilitate the integration of active travel (walking/cycling etc.) with public transport, ensuring ease of access for all.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:


Review of Temporary Pedestrian and Cycling Improvement Interventions

To review the temporary pedestrian and cycling improvement interventions undertaken as part of Covid-19 mobility measures in 2020/2021, with a view to implementing permanently the successful routes through the Roads Act, Part 8 or other appropriate mechanisms.


Cycling Infrastructure and Routes

To improve existing cycleways and bicycle priority measures and cycle parking infrastructure throughout the city and villages, and to create protected cycle lanes, where feasible. Routes within the network will be planned in conjunction with green infrastructure objectives and the NTA’s Cycle Network Plan for the Greater Dublin Area, and the National Cycle Manual, having regard to policies GI2, GI6 and GI8  and objectives GI02 and GIO16.


Walkability Audits

To carry out walkability audits with local communities and priority target groups to inform necessary improvements to the pedestrian network.


Cycle Parking Spaces

To provide publicly accessible cycle parking spaces, both standard bicycle spaces and non-standard for adapted and cargo bikes, in the city centre and the urban villages, and near the entrance to all publicly accessible buildings such as schools, hotels, libraries, theatres, churches etc. as required.


Design Standards for Cycle Parking in Developments

To prepare, in the lifetime of the plan, a comprehensive guide setting out design standards and requirements for cycle parking in developments.


Cycle Parking Facilities

To promote and facilitate, in co-operation with key agencies and stakeholders, the provision of high density cycle parking facilities, as well as parking for cargo and adapted bicycles at appropriate locations, taking into consideration the NTA’s GDA Cycle Network Plan, and Dublin City Council’s Public Realm Strategy.


River Liffey Boardwalk

Subject to a feasibility assessment, to seek to extend the River Liffey Boardwalk as a key leisure walking and seating space in the City.

Active Travel and Schools

Dublin City Council recognises the many benefits associated with encouraging sustainable and active travel to school, including improving safety around school gates and overall reducing traffic congestion and pollution. Several measures can be implemented to encourage a modal shift to walking and cycling for school journeys such as ensuring school sites are located close to the communities they serve, traffic calming around schools, provision of increased permeability and connectivity links to the surrounding area as well as ensuring adequate and secure bicycle storage within school sites.

There are a number of positive interventions that are being implemented by Dublin City Council to support this modal shift, supported by the Active Travel Communications, Engagement and Promotions Unit. The aim of the School Streets initiative is to restrict motorised traffic within an agreed street, or zone, outside the school gate to create a safer environment in which children can feel encouraged to cycle, walk or scoot to school. Dublin City Council and the National Transport Authority (NTA) are partners in the initiative. The key objectives of the initiative include improved road safety and reduced traffic congestion by encouraging walking and cycling; improving the local environment and air quality by reducing dependence on motorised vehicles; and promoting better health through more active travel.

Green Schools is an environmental management and education programme for schools, operated and coordinated by the Environmental Education Unit of An Taisce. There are several themes in the programme including transport, which aims to increase the number of students walking, cycling, scooting, and using public transport or carpooling to school. The transport theme is funded by the Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport and is supported by the NTA. Many schools in the Dublin City area participate in the Green Schools initiative. The Council will continue to work closely with An Taisce, supported by various government departments and sponsors, in the implementation of the Green Schools Programme.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


Walking and Cycling for School Trips

To promote walking and cycling for school trips through the promotion of initiatives such as “Safe Routes to School”, the ‘Green Schools’ and ‘Schools Streets’ projects, and to prioritise school routes for permeability projects and provision and enhancements of pedestrian and cycle ways.

Public Transport

Public transport is crucial for the city and the region. It reduces transport related impacts on the environment by providing a sustainable alternative to the car and has the greatest potential to move the highest volume of people. Dublin as a Capital City and a regional employment centre must accommodate the movement requirements not only of the Dublin City area, but also those of surrounding counties on a daily basis.

The NTA’s Transport Strategy for the Greater Dublin Area (2016-2035) provides a framework for the planning and delivery of transport infrastructure and services in the Greater Dublin Area (GDA) over the strategy period. The strategy is currently being reviewed and an updated strategy will be prepared for the period up to 2042. The Council will continue to work with the NTA, the statutory authority responsible for long term strategic transport planning in the GDA, to focus on the delivery of additional and extended public transport routes to service newly developed and existing areas, to address gaps in existing areas, to improve access to public transport stops and services and to improve the integration between high density development and public transport nodes.

Street level image of the Luas

Figure 8-3:      BusConnects


Key strategic transport projects such as the proposed Metrolink, DART+, BusConnects programme and further LUAS Line and rail construction and extension will continue the expansion of an integrated public transport system for the Dublin region and have the potential for a transformative impact on travel modes over the coming years. Dublin City Council actively supports all measures being implemented or proposed by other transport agencies to enhance capacity on existing lines/services and provide new infrastructure.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


Key Sustainable Transport Projects

To support the expeditious delivery of key sustainable transport projects including Metrolink, Bus Connects, DART+ and LUAS expansion programme so as to provide an integrated public transport network with efficient interchange between transport modes, serving the existing and future needs of the city and region.


The Rail Network and Freight Transport
  1. To work with Iarnród Éireann/Irish Rail, the NTA, TII and other operators to progress a coordinated approach to improving the rail network, integrated with other public transport modes to ensure maximum public benefit and promoting sustainable transport and improved connectivity.
  2. To facilitate the needs of freight transport in accordance with the NTA’s Transport Strategy for the Greater Dublin Area 2016 – 2035 and forthcoming review.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:


Additional Rail Stations
  1. To promote and seek the development of a new commuter rail station at Cross Guns serving the existing rail line infrastructure, preferably as part of a larger mixed use development.
  2. To promote and seek provision of additional stations as part of the DART+ projects in consultation with Iarnród Éireann/Irish Rail.


‘Park and Ride’ Services

To promote ‘Park and Ride’ services at suitable locations in co-operation with neighbouring local authorities.


Green Roofs on Bus Shelters

To engage with the National Transport Authority (NTA) in order to promote the incorporation of green roofs on new and existing bus shelters.


Cross Guns Bridge

To seek improvements to Cross Guns Bridge for pedestrian and cycle users, taking into consideration the BusConnects and Metrolink projects.

Micro-Mobility and Shared Mobility

In recent years there has been a fast paced increase in other micro-mobility and shared mobility travel modes, with demand driven by a desire for easily accessible, flexible, cheaper and greener transport options. The increasing popularity of new micro mobility transportation modes is placing new demands on the city’s streets and public spaces.

Micro-mobility includes both human-powered and e-powered devices and vehicles, such as, but not limited to, bicycles, skates, skateboards, kick-scooters, e-bikes, e-scooters, e-balancing boards, and e-skates.

Shared mobility is the communal use of a device or vehicle (bike, scooter, car, van) on a rental basis by commuters for transportation purposes, without owning the vehicle and creates a means of transportation mode that lies between private device or vehicle ownership and traditional public transport.

Both shared and micro mobility transportation modes, whilst primarily facilitating shorter trips, provide alternative sustainable modes and further support the decarbonisation of transportation. There are operational challenges which will need to be addressed with regard to legal requirements, safety, public realm space management, parking and supportive infrastructure.

In order to limit the potential impact of shared mobility on the public realm, Dublin City Council will work with operators to ensure that sufficient parking is provided to accommodate the operation of the schemes. The Council will promote shared mobility schemes that are parked or affixed legally and as per DCC operational requirements within the city. Enhanced monitoring and data analysis will enable Dublin City Council to identify and cater for demand areas, to better design and manage road space and to develop an adaptive infrastructure.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


Shared Mobility and Adaptive Infrastructure

To promote the use and expansion of shared mobility to all areas of the city and facilitate adaptive infrastructure for the changing modal transport environment, including other micro-mobility and shared mobility, as part of an integrated transport network in the city.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:


Shared Bike Schemes and Micro-Mobility Schemes

To monitor the success of and expand the shared bike schemes and to facilitate the expansion of shared micro-mobility schemes throughout the city, in accordance with ongoing review and new models of operation such as the use of mobility hubs.

8.5.8  Car Parking

The implementation of strong car parking policy in the city has been instrumental in changing travel behaviour and promoting sustainable development and sustainable living. Dublin City Council has embedded car parking policies with a particular emphasis on car parking as a demand management tool by limiting car parking at destination based on a location’s accessibility.

Policies to discourage commuter car parking are further strengthened in this plan, particularly those relating to office developments in the city centre. Dublin City Council will continue to promote accessible parking, car share schemes and electrical vehicle charging parking in all developments through the development management process – see Chapter 15 and Appendix 5 for further detail. The need to cater for people’s transport needs and facilitate people of all ages and abilities and families living within the city is recognised. This will require a range of measures such as those outlined above, including some residential parking, shared mobility and safe bike parking, including for larger scale bikes. How streets and demand for on street parking are managed has to be balanced with other necessary strategic improvements such as street greening initiatives, secure bicycle parking and improvements to footpaths and cycle lanes.

Dublin City Council recognises the need to further control and manage on-street parking across the city to safeguard and enhance city living for people of all ages and abilities and for families. Uncontrolled on-street parking has the potential to cause obstructions to pedestrian and cyclist networks and public transport services. Controlled on-street parking also meets the operational kerbside activities within the city. Dublin City Council is committed to reviewing the residential and non-residential car parking provision across the city and urban villages and evaluating the implementation of parking demand management strategies in areas where deemed appropriate and practicable.

Multi-storey car parks will continue to have a role to play in the city centre and major hubs, particularly as on-street parking space in the city centre is reallocated to provide for public realm and active travel improvements. They facilitate parking and accessible parking for a wide range of city centre uses such as retail, hotels and events. Dublin City Council will encourage the reinvention of multi-storey car parks as central mobility hubs providing high density bike parking, electric charging facilities, shared mobility services, ‘last mile’ delivery hubs etc.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

SMT 23

On-Street Parking

To manage on-street car parking to serve the needs of the city alongside the needs of residents, visitors, businesses, kerbside activity and accessible parking requirements, and to facilitate the re-organisation and loss of spaces to serve sustainable development targets such as in relation to, sustainable transport provision, greening initiatives, sustainable urban drainage, access to new developments, or public realm improvements.

SMT 24

Commuter, Shopping, Business and Leisure Parking

To discourage commuter parking and to ensure adequate but not excessive parking provision for short-term shopping, business and leisure uses.

SMT 25

Car Parking in Residential and Mixed Use Developments
  1. To provide for sustainable levels of car parking and car storage in residential schemes in accordance with development plan car parking standards (see Appendix 5) so as to promote city centre living and reduce the requirement for car parking.
  2. To encourage new ways of addressing the transport needs of residents (such as car clubs and mobility hubs) to reduce the requirement for car parking.
  3. To safeguard the residential parking component in mixed-use developments.

SMT 26

Repurposing of Multi-Storey Car Parks

To support the repurposing of multi-storey car parks for alternative uses such as central mobility hubs providing high density bike parking, shared mobility services, ‘last mile’ delivery hubs and recreational or cultural uses.

SMT 27

Expansion of the EV Charging Network

To support the expansion of the EV charging network by increasing the provision of designated charging facilities for Electric Vehicles on public land and private developments in partnership with the ESB and other relevant stakeholders; and to support the Dublin Regional EV Parking Strategy.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:


Elimination of ‘Free’ On-Street Parking

To progressively eliminate all ‘free’ on-street parking, both within the canals and in adjacent areas where there is evidence of ‘all day’ commuter parking, through the imposition of appropriate parking controls, including resident permit parking, pay and display parking, or by the provision of new cycle parking, public realm or greening.


Control Supply and Price of Public Parking

To control the supply and price of public and permit parking in the city in order to achieve sustainable transportation policy objectives and encourage modal shift.


Feasibility Study of Residential and Non-Residential Car Parking Provision

To carry out a feasibility study of the residential and non-residential car parking provision across the city and urban villages and review the implementation of parking demand management strategies in areas where deemed appropriate and practicable.


Surface Parking in the City

To work with other public bodies to examine opportunities to repurpose surface parking throughout the city for greening and to support the proposal to re-establish the park at the front of Leinster House.

8.5.9  Street/Road, Bridge and Tunnel Infrastructure

It is acknowledged that new street/road infrastructure and improvements to existing streets/roads will be required over the period of the plan. This may be required to improve the efficiency and safety of the street/road network or to open up areas for development. In some instances, the development of new areas is predicated on the delivery of new street/road connections such as the new networks in Belmayne, Ballymun, and Cherry Orchard.

New bridge infrastructure will also facilitate the continued development of the city such as the Dodder Public Transport Bridge, which is linked to development of the Poolbeg West Strategic Development Zone (SDZ) and pedestrian/cycle bridges, which will improve connectivity between the north and south docklands areas.

The Dublin Tunnel is a road traffic tunnel which forms part of the M50 motorway and serves as a key route for heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) travelling to and from Dublin Port. Dublin City Council, working together with Transport Infrastructure Ireland, recognises the need to safeguard the structural integrity of the existing Dublin Tunnel from developments.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:


National Road Projects

To protect national road projects as per the NTA Strategy for the Greater Dublin Area 2016 – 2035 and its review including the provision of a Southern Port Access Route to Poolbeg.


Transport Tunnels
  1. To require the submission of appropriate development assessments for all development proposals located in the vicinity of Dublin Tunnel, the requirements of which are set out in Appendix 5.
  2. To require consultation with Iarnród Éireann/Irish Rail in relation to heavy rail for any proposed public transport tunnel.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:


Road, Street and Bridge Schemes

To initiate and/or implement the following street/road schemes and bridges within the six year period of the development plan, subject to the availability of funding and environmental requirements and compliance with the ‘Principles of Road Development’ set out in the NTA Transport Strategy.

Roads and Streets

  • River Road
  • Belmayne Main Street
  • Sean Moore Road
  • Cherry Orchard Link Roads
  • Richmond Road
  • Collins Avenue Extension
  • Blackhorse Avenue
  • Clonshaugh Road Industrial Estate
  • Cappagh Road
  • St. Margaret’s Link Road
  • Northern Cross/Belcamp Lane
  • Santry Avenue Link Road
  • Newtown Avenue


  • Dodder Public Transport Bridge, linked with BusConnects 16 proposals.
  • Bridge from North Wall Quay at Point Depot (Point Bridge) and the widening of Tom Clarke Bridge, improve pedestrian and cycling facilities at the crossing point as well as accommodating additional public transport routes in conjunction with the Dodder Bridge.
  • Pedestrian/cycle bridge crossing the Liffey between the Samuel Beckett Bridge and the Tom Clarke Bridge.
  • Liffey Valley Park pedestrian/cycle bridge.
  • Pedestrian/Cycle Bridge across River Liffey from Irish National War Memorial Gardens/Islandbridge to the Chapelizod Road, Islandbridge
  • Cycle/pedestrian bridges that emerge as part of the evolving Strategic Cycle Network and Strategic Green Infrastructure Network.
  • Broadstone to Grand Canal pedestrian/cycle bridge.


Investigate Feasibility of Pedestrian/Cycle Connections

To investigate the feasibility of providing a pedestrian/cycle connections at the following locations, subject to its alignment with the recommendations of the NTA’s GDA Cycle Network Plan:

  1. linking Broombridge, Tolka greenway, the Phoenix Park and the Dunsink observatory;
  2. linking East Wall to the Docklands Station/North Wall/Royal Canal.


Tolka Park Pedestrian/Cycle Connection

To provide a pedestrian/cycle connection from Tolka Park to the lands to the south.


Coolock Lane to Oscar Traynor Road Pedestrian/Cycle Connections

To provide for improved pedestrian/cycle connections linking Coolock Lane to Oscar Traynor Road, in collaboration and consultation with the NTA, TII and Fingal County Council.


Summerhill Pedestrian/Cycle Connection

To provide a pedestrian/cycle connection linking Summerhill to Mountjoy Place.


Dominick Street Lower Pedestrian/Cycle Connection

To provide a pedestrian/cycle connection linking Dominick Street Lower to Dominick Place.

8.5.10 Traffic Management and Road Safety Impacts

The City’s road network must be effectively managed during the plan period in order to keep all road users interacting safely and efficiently while ensuring full accessibility and maintaining the economic competitiveness of the city. Traffic management policy will recognise the varying needs of the city through different parts of the day such as the needs of residents, visitors, businesses and those who travel for work and leisure.

Traffic in the city and urban villages can have environmental and safety impacts which need to be addressed and minimised through measures such as traffic calming, layout/road re-design, and through monitoring of emissions and noise. The Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets (DMURS) places a focus on the role of streets in sustainable place-making and encourages layouts that are suited to all users. Dublin City Council is also committed to implementing the Road Safety Authority’s ‘Road Safety Strategy 2013-2020’ and any superseding strategy, in conjunction with relevant stakeholders and agencies, with the objective of sustainably improving road safety on our roads.

It is the Policy of Dublin City Council:

SMT 30

Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets

To design new streets and roads within urban areas in accordance with the principles, approaches and standards contained within the Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets (DMURS) and to carry out upgrade works to existing road and street networks in accordance with these standards where feasible.

SMT 31

Street and Road Design

To ensure that streets and roads within the city are designed to balance the needs and protect the safety of all road users and promote place making, sustainable movement and road safety providing a street environment that prioritises active travel and public transport whilst ensuring the needs of commercial servicing is accommodated.


Traffic Calming and Self-Regulation Street Environments

To ensure that all streets and street networks are designed to passively calm traffic through the creation of a self-regulating street environment that are suited to all users, including pedestrians and cyclists.

It is an Objective of Dublin City Council:


Traffic Signal Control

To continue investment in the city’s computer-based area traffic signal control system and in other Information Technology (IT) systems to increase the capacity of Dublin City Council’s traffic department to manage traffic in the city and to improve the priority given to pedestrians, cyclists and public transport in the city.


Speed Limits and Traffic Calmed Areas

To expand the 30kph speed limits and traffic calmed areas at appropriate locations throughout the city and subject to stakeholder consultation.


Review of Traffic Management and Calming Plans

To review neighbourhood schemes and traffic management and calming plans for local areas throughout the city in consultation with local communities and subject to availability of resources.


Environmental and Road Safety Impacts of Traffic in the City

To tackle the adverse environmental and road safety impacts of traffic in the city through measures such as:

  • The implementation of traffic calming measures and filtered permeability including the restriction of rat-runs in appropriate areas in accordance with best practice and following advice contained in the Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets (DMURS).
  • The ongoing monitoring of traffic noise and emissions, and the assessment and evaluation of the air quality and traffic noise impacts of transport policy and traffic management measures being implemented by Dublin City Council.
  • To support programmes of action which tackle the issue of road safety in the city.
  • To promote traffic calming in existing residential neighbourhoods through innovative street design and layout such as homezones, filtered permeability, low traffic neighbourhoods , quietways and unsignalised crossings where appropriate.





[1] NTA/DCC Canal Cordon Counts, November 2019. Note: whilst more recent cordon counts are available, they have not been set out in the table below as they do not convey realistic travel patterns and mode share due to the current Covid-19 restrictions including people working from home and constraints to public transport capacity.

Transport The city council needs to be proactive in addressing transport policy as well as addressing transport blockages such as College Green, which is seriously problematic.  The...
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8: Sustainable Movement and transport 8.5.9 Street/Road, Bridge and Tunnel Infrastructure - Objective SMT023 Bridges (pg. 301...